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Table 2 Reversible maternal comorbidities and protective caretaking activities in home visiting (HV) and standard care (SC) groups over time

From: Home visits by community health workers in rural South Africa have a limited, but important impact on maternal and child health in the first two years of life

  Standard care (SC) Home visiting (HV) All mothers
  N = 313 N = 157 N = 470
  % n % n % n
Reversible maternal comorbidities
 Maternal depression (EPDS > 13)
  At birth 15% 17% 16%
  3 months post-birth 15% (37/241) 15% (19/124) 15% (56/365)
  6 months post-birth 15% (37/250) 12% (13/112) 14% (50/362)
  9 months post-birth 12% (27/223) 11% (13/117) 12% (40/340)
  12 months post-birth 16% (33/209) 9% (9/103) 13% (42/312)
  24 months post-birth 8% (14/177) 6% (5/85) 7% (19/262)
 Alcohol use
  Before learning of pregnancy 11% 12% 11%**
  After learning of pregnancy 6% 8% 7%**
 Intimate partner violence
  Prior to pregnancy 9% 15% 11%**
  During pregnancy* 19% 29% 22%**
Protective maternal caretaking activities
 During pregnancy
  Four or more ANC visits* 26% 38% 48%
  Tested for HIV 93% 94% 94%
 PMTCT tasks for mothers living with HIV
  ART before birth 3% 7% 5%
  NVP at birth 91% 96% 93%
  PCR testing, 3 months 24% 36% 29%
  PCR testing, 6 months 51% 43% 48%
 Feeding
  Exclusive breastfeeding, 3 months** 17% 29% 21%
  Exclusive breastfeeding, 6 months 18% (47/264) 25% (32/126) 20% (79/390)
 Immunization
  Up-to-date at 3 months 51% 45% 49%
  Up-to-date at 6 months 72% 75% 73%
  Up-to-date at 9 months 84% 83% 84%
  Up-to-date at 12 months 77% 66% 73%
 Child support grant (CSG)
  Secured by 6 months 63% 71% 66%
  Secured by 12 months 76% 80% 77%
 Traditional healers
  Visited within 3 months* 13% 6% 10%
  1. Note. P-values based on linear mixed (continuous) and logistic (binary) regressions that account for repeated measures with random intercepts for mothers
  2. * p < .05; ** p < .01