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Table 2 Matched comparisons of resource consumption and costs, during 1st hospitalization, between patients with healthcare acquired infection and their controls

From: Is it financially beneficial for hospitals to prevent nosocomial infections?

A - Central-line associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI)
  Cases Controls Difference p-value
N = 62 N = 178   
Mean Mean (min, max)b Mean (min, max)b Mean (min, max)b
Antibiotic days 34 13 (4, 23) 21 (11, 30) < 0.001 (< 0.001, 0.095)
Imaging (number) 18 6 (2, 10) 12 (8, 16) < 0.001 (< 0.001, 0.003)
Cultures (number) 16 5 (1, 10) 11 (6, 15) < 0.001 (< 0.001, 0.003)
Blood tests (number) 115 42 (15, 77) 73 (38, 100) < 0.001 (< 0.001, 0.015)
Hospitalization days since inclusion 34 14 (4, 25) 20 (9, 30) < 0.001 (< 0.001, 0.2)
ICU days since inclusion 22 3.9 (1, 7.3) 18 (14.6, 20.1) < 0.001 (< 0.001, 0.003)
Antibiotic cost (USD) 683 248 (52,572) 435 (111,631) 0.009 (< 0.001, 0.6)
Total cost a (USD) 6400 2376 (784,4512) 4024 (1888,5616) < 0.001 (< 0.001, 0.05)
Total cost per day (USD) 601 719 (157,1614) − 118 (− 1013,444) 0.63 (0.02, 0.02)
B –Clostridium difficileinfection
  Cases Controls Difference p-value
  N = 92 N = 276   
  Mean Mean (min, max)b Mean (min, max)b Mean (min, max)b
Antibiotic days 18 6 (1, 13) 12 (5, 17) < 0.001 (< 0.001, 0.1)
Imaging (number) 3.1 1.7 (0.3, 3.4) 1.4 (−0.3, 2.8) 0.11 (0.002, 0.71)
Cultures (number) 5.1 1.7 (0.24, 3.8) 3.4 (1.3, 4.86) 0.003 (< 0.001, 0.26)
Blood tests (number) 33 16 (5.5, 28) 17 (5, 27.5) 0.02 (< 0.001, 0.54)
Hospitalization days since inclusion 16.4 8.6 (4, 14.2) 7.8 (2.2, 12.4) 0.02 (< 0.001, 0.53)
Antibiotic cost (USD) 202 88 (6,215) 114 (−13,196) 0.009 (< 0.001, 0.85)
Total cost a (USD) 1357 733 (204,1426) 624 (−69,1153) 0.047 (< 0.001, 0.83)
Total cost per day (USD) 101 93 (32,174) 8 (−73,69) 0.5 (< 0.001, 0.001)
C- Surgical site infection
  Cases Controls Difference p-value
  N = 76 N = 215   
  Mean Mean (min, max)b Mean (min, max)b Mean (min, max)b
Antibiotic days 14.5 3.1 (1.9, 4.6) 11.4 (9.9, 12.6) < 0.001 (< 0.001, < 0.001)
Imaging (number) 5.2 2.3 (1.2, 3.6) 2.9 (1.6, 4) < 0.001 (< 0.001, 0.002)
Cultures (number) 3.6 0.58 (0.16, 1.2) 3.02 (2.4, 3.44) < 0.001 (< 0.001, < 0.001)
Blood tests (number) 25 9.6 (6, 14) 15.4 (11, 19) < 0.001 (< 0.001, < 0.001)
Hospitalization days since inclusion 8.3 5.5 (4.7, 6.4) 2.8 (1.9, 3.6) 0.002 (< 0.001, 0.032)
Antibiotic cost (USD) 148 18 (9,30) 130 (118,139) < 0.001 (< 0.001, 0.001)
Total cost a,c (USD) 6761 5860 (5701,6071) 901 (690,1060) < 0.001 (< 0.001, < 0.001)
 Deep infection (n = 39) 8332 6852 (6697,7033) 1480 (1299,1635) < 0.001 (< 0.001; < 0.001)
 Superficial infection (n = 37) 5104 4815 (4652,5056) 289 (48,452) 0.04 (0.03¸ 0.56)
  1. aCost does not include fixed expense
  2. b min, mean of matched control patients with minimum resource consumption; max, mean of matched control patients with maximum resource consumption
  3. c Including the cost of the operation
  4. ICU intensive-care unit, USD US Dollar