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Table 1 Baseline patients’ characteristics (A-CLABSI, B-CDI, and C-SSI)

From: Is it financially beneficial for hospitals to prevent nosocomial infections?

A - Central-line associated blood-stream infection (CLABSI)
  Cases Controls
N = 62 N = 178
N (%) / mean ± SD N (%) / mean ± SD
Demographics
 Female gender 24 (39) 70 (39)
 Age (years) 64.7 ± 16 64.2 ± 19
 Age group (years)
  0–18 a 18 (29) 54 (31)
   > 18–50 10 (16) 27 (15)
   > 50–70 14 (23) 41 (23)
   > 70 20 (32) 55 (31)
 Nursing-home residence 10 (16) 22 (12)
 ICU type
  General (medical or surgical) 41 (66) 115 (65)
  Cardiac or cardiothoracic surgery 3 (5) 9 (5)
  Neonatal 18 (29) 54 (30)
 Time from ICU admission to inclusion (days) 12 ± 17 11 ± 15
Clinical characteristics at inclusion
 Mechanical ventilation 40 (64) 114 (64)
 Diabetes mellitus 17 (27) 52 (29)
 Creatinine above 150 mmol/liter 17 (27) 51 (28)
 Dialysis 5 (8) 10 (6)
 Congestive heart failure 8 (13) 27 (15)
 Cirrhosis 1 (2) 8 (4)
 Albumin (g/L) 22± 5 26 ± 7
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 5 (8) 15 (8)
 Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II
   ≤ 52 12 (29%) 36 (30%)
   > 52 40 (71%) 84 (70%)
B -Clostridium difficileinfection (CDI)
  Cases Controls
  N = 92 N = 276
  N (%) / mean ± SD N (%) / mean ± SD
Demographics
 Internal Medicine / Surgical ward 72:20 (78:22) 216:60 (78:22)
 Female gender 49 (53) 147 (53)
 Age (years) 76 ± 14 74 ± 14
 Age group (years)
   > 18–50 6 (7) 18 (7)
   > 50–70 15 (16) 45 (16)
   > 70 71 (77) 213 (77)
 Nursing-home residence 30 (33) 42 (15)
 Time from admission to inclusion (days) 15 ± 17 14 ± 16
Clinical characteristics at inclusion
 Mechanical ventilation 3 (3) 9 (3)
 Diabetes mellitus 34 (37) 132 (48)
 Creatinine above 150 mmol/liter 33 (36) 87 (32)
 Dialysis 6 (7) 20 (7)
 Congestive heart failure 23 (25) 76 (28)
 Cirrhosis 3 (3) 12 (4)
 Albumin (g/L) 26 ± 6 30 ± 7
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 6 (7) 46 (17)
 Charlson comorbidity index   
   ≥ 6 64 (70) 192 (70)
C - Surgical site infection (SSI)
  Cases Controls
  N = 76 N = 215
  N (%) / mean ± SD N (%) / mean ± SD
Demographics
 Deep: Superficial 39:37 (51:49)
 Female gender 42 (55) 119 (55)
 Age (years) 64 ± 18 64 ± 17
 Age group (years)
   > 18–50 18 (24) 48 (22)
   > 50–70 24 (32) 78 (36)
   > 70 34 (45) 89 (41)
 Nursing-home residence 0 (0) 6 (3)
 Operation type
  Breast 4 (5) 12 (6)
  Cholecystectomy 10 (13) 30 (14)
  Colon 19 (25) 50 (23)
  Inguinal hernia 5 (7) 15 (7)
  Spine 10 (13) 29 (13)
  Total hip replacement (THR) 11 (14) 30 (14)
  Total knee replacement (TKR) 17 (22) 49 (23)
Clinical characteristics at inclusion
 Mechanical ventilation 0 0
 Diabetes mellitus 13 (17) 26 (12)
 Creatinine above 150 mmol/liter 4 (5) 1 (0.5)
 Dialysis 1 (1) 0
 Congestive heart failure 3 (4) 5 (2)
 Cirrhosis 0 1 (0.5)
 Albumin (g/L) 38 ± 7 40 ± 6
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 2 (3) 4 (2)
 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score
  1 13 (17) 33 (16)
  2 43 (57) 137 (64)
  3 19 (25) 39 (20)
  4 1 (1) 2 (1)
  5 0 0
  Emergency 6 (8) 11 (5)
  1. a Among neonates: gestational age (weeks) was 30.8 + 5.7 among cases and 30.9 + 6.4 among controls; birth weight (grams) was 1750 ± 1465 among cases and 1660 ± 1244 among controls