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Table 2 Rates and single variable analysis of antibiotic prescribing by resident and care home characteristics

From: Antibiotic prescribing in UK care homes 2016–2017: retrospective cohort study of linked data

VariableNumber of antibiotic prescriptionsResident yearsAntibiotic prescriptions per resident yearIncidence rate ratio (95% CI)
Resident-level
 Gender
  Male920035182.61Ref.
  Female19,48972132.701.00 (0.95–1.06)
 Age
  65–74382315072.54Ref.
  75–8410,15939552.571.02 (0.94–1.10)
  85–9412,64945562.781.08 (1.00–1.17)
  95+20587132.891.16 (1.03–1.30)
 Type of care
  Residential853934342.49Ref.
  Nursing20,07172652.761.26 (1.17–1.35)
 Dementia
  No17,32559962.89Ref.
  Yes11,28547032.400.86 (0.81–0.92)
 Respite care
  No27,46110,1842.70Ref.
  Yes12285472.240.89 (0.80–0.98)
 Entered care home during study period
  No17,19067422.55Ref.
  Yes11,49939892.881.11 (1.06–1.17)
 Status at end of study period
  In home10,57345992.30Ref.
  Permanently Discharged23409062.581.14 (1.05–1.24)
  Died15,77652263.021.47 (1.39–1.55)
 Number of reported infection episodes during study
  010,46354051.94Ref.
  1565422062.561.52 (1.42–1.62)
  More than 112,57231214.032.22 (2.07–2.37)
 Number of BNF chapters with repeated prescriptions (excluding antibiotics)
  0–185210320.83Ref.
  2–4797136032.211.96 (1.77–2.16)
   5–716,39052673.112.48 (2.25–2.73)
   8 or more34768294.193.19 (2.81–3.62)
Care home-level
 Country
  England19,20674412.58Ref.
   Northern Ireland397113133.021.20 (0.94–1.52)
   Scotland452617262.621.04 (0.82–1.31)
   Wales9862513.931.72 (0.99–3.00)
 Number of beds
   < 40570818143.15Ref.
  40–49693027232.540.84 (0.67–1.06)
  50–59737828942.550.82 (0.65–1.04)
  60+867333002.630.87 (0.68–1.11)
 Median overall length of stay
   < 1 year704126532.65Ref.
  1–2 years18,60469522.681.02 (0.84–1.25)
   > 2 years304411262.701.04 (0.77–1.41)
 Clinical staff per 100 residents
   < 10694126432.63Ref.
   10–1915,14356122.700.99 (0.81–1.22)
   20+660524762.671.00 (0.79–1.26)
 Care staff per 100 residents
   < 60721925542.83Ref.
   60–7916,21161872.620.89 (0.73–1.09)
   80+525919902.640.86 (0.67–1.11)
 Percentage residents with dementia
   < 10698723203.01Ref.
   10–8018,41170652.610.85 (0.70–1.03)
   80–100329113462.440.82 (0.62–1.07)
 Percentage residents with nursing care
   < 10359413512.66Ref.
   10–8013,27850552.630.89 (0.69–1.14)
   80–10011,81743252.731.03 (0.80–1.33)
 Number of infection incidents per bed per year
  Less than 116,32965482.49Ref.
   1 to 2831628872.881.14 (0.94–1.37)
   2 or more404412973.121.24 (0.97–1.59)
  1. BNF British National Formulary, CI confidence interval, Ref. reference group