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Table 3 Distributions of the investigated variables

From: The impact of accessibility and service quality on the frequency of patient visits to the primary diabetes care provider: results from a cross-sectional survey performed in six European countries

  English region Finnish region German region Greek region Dutch region Spanish region Total sample Region differencesa
Control variablesb
 Gender
  Valid data 209 132 217 153 290 70 1071  
  Male 64.6% 65.2% 53.9% 58.2% 59.3% 55.7% 59.6% n.s.c
 Age in years
  Valid data 211 133 218 153 294 71 1080  
  Mean (SD) 63.0 (11.9) 63.5 (9.6) 65.7 (11.2) 66.0 (10.6) 65.0 (10.0) 69.3 (11.4) 65.0 (10.9) p < 0.001d
 Education
  Valid data 191 129 211 150 287 68 1036  
  High 39.8% 59.7% 66.4% 27.3% 76.3% 26.5% 55.1% p < 0.001c
 Stage of diabetes
  Valid data 204 124 207 125 276 63 999  
  Diet only 13.7% 3.2% 7.7% 1.6% 19.9% 4.8% 10.8% p < 0.001c
  Oral, no insulin 65.7% 69.4% 58.9% 68.8% 65.9% 63.5% 65.1%
  Insulin 20.6% 27.4% 33.3% 29.6% 14.1% 31.7% 24.1%
 Heart problems
  Valid data 207 126 193 144 284 70 1024  
  Yes 25.1% 19.0% 21.8% 30.6% 14.8% 18.6% 21.2% p < 0.01c
 Previous stroke
  Valid data 212 135 217 151 289 70 1074  
  Yes 7.5% 2.2% 10.6% 6.0% 4.5% 5.7% 6.3% p < 0.05c
 Problems with lower extremities
  Valid data 206 134 215 148 283 71 1057  
  Yes 17.0% 12.7% 26.0% 12.2% 5.3% 15.5% 14.4% p < 0.001c
 Problems with sight
  Valid data 210 133 216 151 292 70 1072  
  Yes 24.3% 10.5% 17.6% 15.9% 8.6% 28.6% 16.0% p < 0.001c
 Problems with kidney
  Valid data 207 133 212 145 286 71 1054  
  Yes 0.5% 0.0% 0.9% 0.7% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% n.s.c
Focal predictorse
 Travel distance to provider in kilometres
 Mean (SD) 1.6 (2.9) 9.2 (10.7) 5.7 (6.1) 15.8 (20.6) 1.9 (1.8) 1.5 (1.3) 5.4 (10.4) p < 0.001d
 Travel time to provider in minutes
  Mean (SD) 14.6 (9.9) 16.7 (11.5) 13.1 (9.2) 28.8 (25.9) 7.7 (5.1) 14.4 (9.8) 14.7 (14.2) p < 0.001d
 In-practice waiting time in minutes
  Mean (SD) 18.5 (13.9) 13.7 (10.3) 43.6 (32.5) 52.8 (41.1) 12.9 (19.6) 38.2 (30.0) 27.5 (30.1) p < 0.001d
 Quality of communicationf
  Mean (SD) 3.9 (1.2) 4.2 (1.0) 4.2 (1.1) 3.9 (1.3) 4.4 (1.0) 3.5 (1.5) 4.1 (1.2) p < 0.001d
Criterion variablee
 Numbers of physician visits per year
  Mean (SD) 3.3 (3.0) 2.5 (1.4) 4.6 (4.0) 4.9 (4.3) 3.7 (1.3) 4.6 (5.9) 3.9 (3.3) p < 0.001d
  1. a n.s. not significant
  2. b Valid data vary due to missing values
  3. c Pearson’s chi-square test
  4. Kruskal-Wallis teste
  5. e Valid data are identical with the numbers of participants included (see Table 1)
  6. f Coded from 1 for worst quality to 5 for best quality