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Table 1 Characteristics of maternal healthcare providers and facilities in Uganda and Zambia

From: Determinants of healthcare providers’ confidence in their clinical skills to deliver quality obstetric and newborn care in Uganda and Zambia

 TotalUgandaZambia
(N = 574)
N (%)
(N = 309)
N (%)
(N = 265)
N (%)
Confidence score (mean ± SD)0.71 (0.20)0.69 (0.20)0.74 (0.20)
Knowledge score (mean ± SD)0.56 (0.12)0.53 (0.10)0.59 (0.13)
Scope of practice (mean ± SD)0.57 (0.24)0.54 (0.24)0.61 (0.23)
Provider characteristics
 Age (mean ± SD)35.5 (10.5)33.2 (10.1)38.3 (10.3)
 Days of training in past year (mean ± SD)5.2 (10.8)5.5 (12.2)4.9 (8.8)
 Female398 (69.3%)217 (70.2%)181 (68.3%)
Qualification
 Nurse assistantsa15 (2.6%)15 (4.9%)
 Enrolled nurseb140 (24.4%)64 (20.7%)76 (28.7%)
 Enrolled midwifec195 (34.0%)96 (31.1%)99 (37.4%)
 Registered nursed45 (7.8%)17 (5.5%)28 (10.6%)
 Registered midwifee90 (15.7%)58 (18.8%)32 (12.1%)
 Clinical officerf56 (9.8%)36 (11.7%)20 (7.5%)
 Doctorg33 (5.7%)23 (7.4%)10 (3.8%)
Facility characteristics
 Facility level
  Health centerh339 (59.1%)165 (53.4%)174 (65.7%)
  Hospitali235 (40.9%)144 (46.6%)91 (34.3%)
 Facility ownership
  Private (for profit, not-for profit)153 (26.7%)102 (33.0%)51 (19.2%)
  Public421 (73.3%)207 (67.0%)214 (80.8%)
 Facility location
  Rural267 (46.5%)141 (45.6%)126 (47.5%)
  Urban307 (53.5%)168 (54.4%)139 (52.5%)
Intervention district
 Control204 (35.5%)113 (36.6%)91 (34.3%)
 Intervention370 (64.5%)196 (63.4%)174 (65.7%)
Country
 Uganda309 (53.8%)309 (100%)0 (0%)
 Zambia265 (46.2%)0 (0%)265 (100%)
  1. Maternal healthcare providers are those clinicians who were directly involved in the provision of obstetric and newborn care such as delivery, antenatal care, and postnatal care. Confidence questionnaire was based on self-reported performance of 27 common obstetric tasks using four-level Likert item. Knowledge test was based on 60 multiple-choice questions on general obstetric knowledge for management of early pregnancy, labor and delivery, and postpartum care. Scope of practice questionnaire asked providers whether they had performed twenty-seven common obstetric tasks (the same as the confidence questionnaire) in the past three months. aNurse assistants are trained for about 6 months and exist only in Uganda. bEnrolled nurses and cenrolled midwives are trained for 2–3 years. Enrolled nurses are similar to licensed practical nurses in the United States. dRegistered nurses and eregistered midwives receive medical training for 3 to 4.5 years. fClinical officers receive 3 years of training. gDoctors are typically trained for 5 to 7 years. Provider qualification can vary by country. hHealth centers are equipped to provide basic emergency obstetric and neonatal care (BEmONC) which includes 7 signal functions: 1) Administration of parenteral antibiotics, 2) Administration of uterotonic drugs for active management of the third stage of labor and prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, 3) Use of parenteral anticonvulsants for the management of preeclampsia/eclampsia, 4) Manual removal of placenta, 5) Removal of retained products, 6) Assistance of vaginal delivery, and 7) Basic neonatal resuscitation. iHospitals are equipped to provide comprehensive obstetric and neonatal care (CEmONC) which perform the 7 basic functions of BEmONC and two additional services: cesarean delivery and blood transfusion