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Table 5 Description of some of the approaches described in the located literature

From: Patient and service-related barriers and facitators to the acceptance and use of interventions to promote communication in health and social care: a realist review

Term Description
Directives (ATD)
Advance Treatment Directive (ATD) is a document that specifies someone’s future preferences for treatment, in the event that they lose the mental ability to make treatment decisions (i.e., lose capacity). They have originally been used to instruct treatment for end-of-life, but since people with mental health difficulties may also have periods where they are unable to make treatment decisions, an advance statement could assist with selecting appropriate medication, specifying wishes regarding child care, and choices in a number of other areas of their life and treatment.
Joint Crisis Plan
The Joint Crisis Plan is a patient’s negotiated declaration regarding treatment preferences for any future psychiatric emergency when they might not be able to express their wishes.
Records (PHR)
Patient-Held Records (PHR) are tools intended to inform and involve patients in their care, and to assist communication between the various groups of people who are professionally and informally caring for the patient, thus facilitating continuity of care. They are described as ‘logbooks’, ‘patient travelling records’, ‘personal records’, ‘client records’, ‘shared care records’, or ‘care diaries’. They can take numerous forms ranging from a dynamic tool used by the patient and all health-care professionals providing care to the patient, to a print-out from the patient’s medical record, or general information sheets.
Directives (PAD)
Psychiatric Advance Directives (PADs) are documents that allow individuals with severe and chronic mental illnesses to determine their treatment preferences for future crises and to assign a proxy decision-maker for any periods of incompetence.
Support (SMS)
Self-Management Support (SMS) refers to wide-ranging sustaining methods for improving chronic illness outcomes, based on patient-centred attributes (such as involving patients as partners; providing varied, advanced educational methods specific to patients’ needs; and individualising patient care), provider attributes (such as possessing suitable knowledge, skills, and attitudes for care provision), and organisational attributes (such as putting an organised system of care in place, having a multi-disciplinary team approach, and using tangible social support).