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Table 4 Multilevel logistic regression estimates and variance components of patients’ utilization of community-based management care

From: Factors associated with the utilization of community-based diabetes management care: A cross-sectional study in Shandong Province, China

VariablesModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5
OR,95%CIPOR,95%CIPOR,95%CIPOR,95%CIPOR,95%CIP
Individual level
 Area
  Urban (ref)  1 1 1 1 
  Rural  1.05 (0.77 ~ 1.43)0.741.15 (0.83 ~ 1.57)0.401.20 (0.89 ~ 1.63)0.241.26 (0.92 ~ 1.72)0.15
 Gender
  Male (ref)  1 1 1 1 
  Female  0.91 (0.76 ~ 1.10)0.351.02 (0.84 ~ 1.24)0.840.92 (0.76 ~ 1.10)0.351.02 (0.84 ~ 1.24)0.85
 Age group, years
   < 65 (ref)  1 1 1 1 
   ≥ 65  0.88 (0.73 ~ 1.05)0.161.06 (0.88 ~ 1.29)0.530.87 (0.73 ~ 1.04)0.131.05 (0.87 ~ 1.28)0.59
 Household income per capita, Yuan
   < 2800  1 1 1 1 
  2800~  1.10 (0.86 ~ 1.42)0.450.99 (0.77 ~ 1.29)0.961.11 (0.86 ~ 1.43)0.421.00 (0.77 ~ 1.30)0.99
  6000~  1.06 (0.82 ~ 1.38)0.650.95 (0.73 ~ 1.25)0.741.06 (0.82 ~ 1.38)0.640.96 (0.73 ~ 1.25)0.74
   ≥ 12,000  0.93 (0.72 ~ 1.22)0.620.76 (0.58 ~ 1.00)0.050.95 (0.73 ~ 1.24)0.710.78 (0.59 ~ 1.03)0.08
 Duration of diabetes, years
   < 5 (ref)  1 1 1 1 
  5 ~ 10  1.16 (0.93 ~ 1.43)0.181.09 (0.88 ~ 1.36)0.431.15 (0.93 ~ 1.42)0.201.09 (0.87 ~ 1.36)0.45
   > 10  1.02 (0.82 ~ 1.27)0.880.86 (0.69 ~ 1.09)0.211.02 (0.82 ~ 1.27)0.880.86 (0.69 ~ 1.09)0.21
 Diabetic knowledge score    1.14 (1.10 ~ 1.17)0.00  1.14 (1.10 ~ 1.17)0.00*
 Diabetic self-efficacy score    1.04 (1.02 ~ 1.06)0.00  1.04 (1.02 ~ 1.06)0.00*
Community level
 Types of PHIs
  Township-level PHIs (ref)      1 1 
  Village-level PHIs      1.00 (0.64 ~ 1.55)0.991.10 (0.71 ~ 1.76)0.63
  Number of health workers per 1000 population serviced by PHI      0.020.021.18 (1.06 ~ 1.30)0.03*
  Healthcare providers knowledge score on diabetes management delivery in PHIs      0.800.801.02 (0.89 ~ 1.17)0.76
Variance components
 Community level variance0.287 0.285 0.283 0.257 0.235 
 Intra-class correlation0.080 0.080 0.080 0.072 0.067 
  1. Model 1 is an empty model without any explanatory variables; Model 2 included the control variable at the individual level; Model 3 included the control variables and the important explanatory varied of diabetes knowledge and diabetes self-efficacy at the individual level; Model 4 included the control variables at the individual level and the important variables of primary health institutions at the community level. Model 5 include all the variables at the individual and community levels.
  2. PHIs, primary health institutions; Township-level PHIs included the community health centers in urban areas and the township health centers in rural areas; Village-level PHIs included the community health stations in urban area and the village clinics in urban areas. OR, Odds ratios; CI, confidence interval; *Significant at p < 0.05
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