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Table 1 Categorisation of staff descriptions of important factors before the 283 incidents

From: Violence and aggression in psychiatric inpatient care in Sweden: a critical incident technique analysis of staff descriptions

SubcategoryCategoryMain area
Psychiatric diagnosis/symptoms/conditions (106)Patient traits and statesInternal patient factors
Disruptive/violent/impulsive behaviour (68)
Substance abuse (60)
Scared/anxious/frustrated/suspicious (34)
Sudden threatening/violent behaviour (34)
Intellectual disability/dementia/brain injury (10)
Approaching staff suddenly and unpredictably (8)
Foreign background (8)
Self-harm/suicide attempt (7)
Inappropriate sexual or misogynistic behaviour (5)
Historic sexual abuse of patient (1)
Serious somatic illness (1)
Special and rare circumstances (5)
Organisational problems/inadequate handling (29)Characteristics of organisation and staffExternal factors
Change of shift/staff busy (7)
Scared/anxious/inexperienced staff (6)
Staff preparing to intervene (1)
Denied request/unwanted news (58)Unwanted decision or informationSituational and relational factors
Medicine denied or enforced (31)
Medication of patients (26)Measures taken impacting the patient
Patient about to be admitted/discharged (15)
Patient in doctor or staff consultation (13)
Police intervention (11)
Patient supervised/secluded (7)
Patient (about to be) mechanically restrained (6)
  1. The figures in parentheses indicate the number of descriptions