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Table 4 Relationship between the working environment and patient safety culture scores in nursesa

From: Relationship of patient safety culture with factors influencing working environment such as working hours, the number of night shifts, and the number of days off among healthcare workers in Japan: a cross-sectional study

Response variables Explanatory variablesAICC
Working hours in a weekNumber of night shifts in a monthNumber of days off in a month
< 4040–60≥6001–4≥5≥107–9< 7
Teamwork within unitsCoefficient0.00−0.04b−0.07c0.000.02− 0.030.00−0.04b− 0.07c932
Supervisor or manager expectations and actions promoting patient safety0.00−−0.030.00−0.05b−0.12b721
Organizational learning-continuous improvement0.00−0.04c0.020.00−0.04−0.09b0.00−0.03c−0.021444
Management support for patient safety0.00−0.02−−0.050.00−0.05b− 0.061632
Overall perceptions of patient safety0.00−0.03− 0.11b0.00−0.05c−0.08b0.00−0.01−0.031401
Feedback and communication about error0.00−0.02− 0.040.00−0.04−0.040.00−0.02−0.051468
Communication openness0.00−−0.02−0.040.00−0.03−0.061735
Frequency of events reported0.−0.01− 0.010.00−0.010.011721
Teamwork across units0.00−0.02−0.07c0.00−0.01− 0.050.00−0.04b− 0.061469
Staffing0.00−0.05b−0.14b0.00−0.01− 0.06b0.00−0.02−0.07c458
Handoffs and transitions0.000.00−0.08c0.000.01−0.010.00−0.02−0.051429
Nonpunitive response to errors0.00−0.03− 0.09b0.000.05−0.040.00−0.02−0.12b1829
Respondents who rated patient safety grade as “very good” or “good” (vs. others)aOR1.000.73b0.691.000.870.731.001.051.098877
Respondents who reported one or more events (vs. none),529
  1. AICC Akaike’s Information Criterion Correction, aOR: adjusted Odds Ratio, (n) Number of respondents
  2. aResults of the generalized linear mixed model using working hours, the number of night shifts and the number of days off as explanatory variables
  3. bP < 0.01
  4. cP < 0.05