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Table 2 Patient safety culture scores in all respondents

From: Relationship of patient safety culture with factors influencing working environment such as working hours, the number of night shifts, and the number of days off among healthcare workers in Japan: a cross-sectional study

 All respondentsWorking hours in a weekNumber of night shifts in a monthNumber of days off in a month
< 4040–60≥60Spearman’s ρ01–4≥5Spearman’s ρ≥107–9< 7Spearman’s ρ
(Number of respondents)(3768)(1154)(2145)(365) (764)(1628)(1347) (1049)(2137)(487) 
Teamwork within units0.760.790.750.73−0.07a0.760.760.760.010.800.750.72−0.08a
Supervisor or manager expectations and actions promoting patient safety0.700.720.690.68−0.06a0.680.710.700.030.730.690.66−0.07a
Organizational learning-continuous improvement0.580.610.570.57− 0.05a0.610.590.56−0.05a0.610.570.55−0.07a
Management support for patient safety0.610.640.600.54−0.08a0.620.620.58−0.04a0.650.600.56−0.08a
Overall perceptions of patient safety0.590.610.580.54−0.06a0.630.600.55−0.09a0.590.590.580.00
Feedback and communication about error0.660.700.660.53−0.11a0.650.640.680.05b0.720.660.52−0.15a
Communication openness0.570.590.570.56−0.030.580.580.56−0.020.600.570.56−0.04b
Frequency of events reported0.710.710.720.65−0.020.700.710.720.020.720.710.64−0.04b
Teamwork across units0.490.510.480.51−0.030.500.510.47−0.05a0.510.480.520.00
Staffing0.420.460.410.37−0.09a0.460.450.37−0.14a0.420.430.410.00
Handoffs and transitions0.350.370.350.28−0.07a0.360.360.34−0.010.370.340.32−0.05a
Nonpunitive response to errors0.510.520.500.49−0.030.550.540.45−0.11a0.490.510.520.02
Proportion of respondents who rated the patient safety grade as “very good” or “good”0.480.520.470.430.06a,c0.500.500.440.06a,c0.470.480.500.02c
Proportion of respondents who reported one or more events0.790.790.800.700.07a,c0.600.790.900.26a,c0.840.800.640.16a,c
  1. aP < 0.01
  2. bP < 0.05
  3. cCramer’s V