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Table 2 Sociodemographic characteristics of participants by response to medical dispute

From: Violence against healthcare workers and other serious responses to medical disputes in China: surveys of patients at 12 public hospitals

Frequency (Column %)Lower-level Response (n = 3059)Higher-level Response (n = 2497)pNon-violence (n = 5473)Violence (n = 83)p
Sex     **
 Female1667 (54.5%)1342 (53.7%) 2978 (54.4%)31 (37.3%) 
 Male1392 (45.5%)1155 (46.3%) 2495 (45.6%)52 (62.7%) 
Birth Year     
 1949 or before317 (10.4%)258 (10.3%) 568 (10.4%)7 (8.4%) 
 1950–1959292 (9.5%)230 (9.2%) 518 (9.5%)4 (4.8%) 
 1960–1969437 (14.3%)322 (12.9%) 751 (13.7%)8 (9.6%) 
 1970–1979570 (18.6%)541 (21.7%) 1094 (20.0%)17 (20.5%) 
 1980–1989957 (31.3%)809 (32.4%) 1732 (31.6%)34 (41.0%) 
 1990–1999486 (15.9%)337 (13.5%) 810 (14.8%)13 (15.7%) 
Marital Status  **   
 Unmarried633 (20.7%)448 (17.9%) 1061 (19.4%)20 (24.1%) 
 Married2426 (79.3%)2049 (82.1%) 4412 (80.6%)63 (75.9%) 
Education  *   
 Junior High School or Below1119 (36.6%)981 (39.3%) 2072 (37.9%)28 (33.7%) 
 Senior High School or equivalent871 (28.5%)704 (28.2%) 1550 (28.3%)25 (30.1%) 
 Junior College or Higher1069 (34.9%)812 (32.5%) 1851 (33.8%)30 (36.1%) 
Unemployed806 (26.3%)728 (29.2%)1514 (27.7%)20 (24.1%) 
Travel distance measure  *   
 Short-distance2439 (79.7%)2048 (82.0%) 4419 (80.7%)68 (81.9%) 
 Mid-distance406 (13.3%)300 (12.0%) 695 (12.7%)11 (13.3%) 
 Long-distance214 (7.0%)149 (6.0%) 359 (6.6%)4 (4.8%) 
Rural1665 (54.4%)1449 (58.0%)**3067 (56.0%)47 (56.6%) 
Urban1394 (45.6%)1048 (42.0%)2406 (44.0%)36 (43.4%)
Monthly Income (CNY)     
  < 1000636 (20.8%)552 (22.1%) 1170 (21.4%)18 (21.7%) 
 1000 ~  1999676 (22.1%)560 (22.4%) 1220 (22.3%)16 (19.3%) 
 2000 ~  2999733 (24.0%)617 (24.7%) 1336 (24.4%)14 (16.9%) 
 3000 ~  4999709 (23.2%)523 (20.9%) 1212 (22.1%)20 (24.1%) 
 5000 ~  9999257 (8.4%)193 (7.7%) 441 (8.1%)9 (10.8%) 
  > = 10,00048 (1.6%)52 (2.1%) 94 (1.7%)6 (7.2%) 
Inpatient1687 (55.1%)1392 (55.7%) 3044 (55.6%)35 (42.2%)*
Outpatient1369 (44.8%)1105 (44.3%) 2426 (44.3%)48 (57.7%)
  1. Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square Test p-value indicator: “†” p < .10, * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001. This test examines the alternative hypothesis that there is a linear association between the two variables. The item “travel distance measure” was derived from a question asking patients’ hometown locations relative to the hospital location. Three options were provided in the multiple-choice question: within the same county, outside of the county within the same province, and outside of the province. These three options were designated “short-distance,” “mid-distance,” and “long-distance,” respectively