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Table 2 Associations (OR) between potential predictors and healthcare utilization (N = 759)

From: Socio-demographic, clinical and psychological predictors of healthcare utilization among patients with musculoskeletal disorders: a prospective cohort study

Potential predictorContact with primary care physiotherapy in relation to low-back, shoulder or neck painContact with secondary care in relation to specific low-back, neck or shoulder disorders
Casesb (n)%OROR95% CICasesc (n)%OROR95% CI
 Pain 0-10a352461.101.09(1.01;1.17)*84111.241.26(1.11;1.44)*
 Standardized disability 0-100a347461.011.01(1.00;1.02)*82111.021.02(1.00;1.03)*
 Pain site
  Low back141431.001.0037111.001.00
 Level of education
  Low (<  3 years) or vocational and training182471.171.05(0.67;1.63)48121.091.31(0.64;2.67)
  Middle (3–4 years) or high (>  4 years)111471.170.99(0.62;1.59)2080.710.79(0.36;1.76)
 Sickness leavee
 Private Health Insurance
 Fear avoidance 0-20a345461.011.02(0.99;1.05)83111.051.03(0.98;1.08)
 Psychological wellbeing (WHO-5) 0-100a350471.001.00(0.99;1.00)84110.990.99(0.97;1.00)*
 General Health
  Excellent/very good128421.001.0031101.001.00
  1. Abbreviations: OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, WHO World Health Organization
  2. * p < 0.05
  3. aOR per 1 unit increase in score
  4. bpatients with ≥6 contacts to primary care physiotherapist
  5. cpatients with ≥1 contact to secondary care
  6. dAdjusted for age, gender, duration of pain (under/over 3 months) and comorbidity (yes/no)
  7. ePatients retired or with flex job or on disability pension was also included in this analysis (n = 186)