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Table 2 Association of predisposing, enabling and need factors with formal home care utilization - bivariable analysis

From: Formal home care use by older adults: trajectories and determinants in the Lc65+ cohort

 Non-usersNew userspN
(N = 1785)(N = 241)
Predisposing factors
 Demographic
  Age in 2012, mean (SD)73.1 (2.9)73.7 (2.9)0.0022026
  Female sex, n (%)1069 (59.9)144 (59.8)0.9682026
 Social
  Born abroad (vs born in Switzerland), n (%)448 (25.1)71 (29.6)0.1382023
  Highest level of educational attainment, n (%)  0.2272024
   Compulsory education329 (18.4)52 (21.7)  
   Apprenticeship711 (39.9)101 (42.1)  
   High school, university or equivalent744 (41.7)87 (36.3)  
 Beliefs, knowledge and attitudes
  Knows very well or rather well what a home care organization is and what it can offer (vs rather no or not at all), n (%)1273 (79.7)153 (74.6)0.0921802
  Would not hesitate at all to seek help from a home care organization in case of need (vs a little, a lot or would not seek help), n (%)903 (57.4)111 (54.7)0.4601776
Enabling factors
 Social support
  Without children, n (%)368 (20.7)54 (22.4)0.5522015
  Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6) score of less than 12 (vs 12 or more), n (%)363 (22.0)69 (32.9)< 0.0011859
  Lives alone, n (%)697 (39.3)113 (46.9)0.0242016
 Available income and wealth
  Difficult financial situation, n (%)329 (21.1)83 (39.5)< 0.0011766
 Organization and accessibility
  Number of years with the current attending physician, n (%)  0.9361757
   2 years or less189 (12.2)24 (11.4)  
   3 to 10 years409 (26.4)55 (26.2)  
   More than 10 years949 (61.3)131 (62.4)  
  Knows very well or rather well how to find a home care organization in case of need (vs rather no or not at all), n (%)964 (60.7)125 (60.1)0.8571795
Need factors
 Perceived
  Self-rated health reported as fair, poor or very poor (vs very good or good), n (%)449 (25.2)121 (50.2)< 0.0012026
  Suffers since at least 6 months from, n (%)   2002
   - Pain in articulations of legs, shoulders, arms or hands, or back pain1025 (58.1)166 (69.8)0.001 
   - Shortness of breath, difficult breathing207 (11.7)51 (21.4)< 0.001 
   - Memory lapses affecting everyday life, difficulty concentrating, or difficulty taking decisions in everyday life220 (12.5)53 (22.3)< 0.001 
   - Involuntary leakage of urine204 (11.6)42 (17.7)0.007 
  Depressed mood, anhedonia or both during the past 4 weeks, n (%)364 (20.5)90 (38.0)< 0.0012010
  Mobility difficulties, n (%)692 (39.2)154 (64.4)< 0.0012005
  Falls not associated with sport activity during the past 12 months, n (%)  < 0.0012014
   No1464 (82.5)172 (71.7)  
   Yes, once246 (13.9)48 (20.0)  
   Yes, several times64 (3.6)20 (8.3)  
  Fear of falling, n (%)  < 0.0011986
   Not at all975 (55.8)88 (37.1)  
   Yes, without activity restriction643 (36.8)89 (37.6)  
   Yes, with restriction from certain activities because of it131 (7.5)60 (25.3)  
  Difficulty or need for help in one or more ADL/IADL, n (%)  < 0.0011940
   No difficulty or need for help in 2018a1179 (69.2)53 (22.5)  
   Difficulty or need for help in 2018a, but not in 2012302 (17.7)98 (41.5)  
   Difficulty or need for help in 2012 and 2018a223 (13.1)85 (36.0)  
 Evaluated
  Number of diagnosed chronic health conditionsb reported during the past 12 months, n (%)  < 0.0012008
   0568 (32.1)46 (19.2)  
   1569 (32.2)68 (28.3)  
   More than 1631 (35.7)126 (52.5)  
  Treated for or suffering from the following diagnosed chronic health conditions during the past 12 months, n (%)   2008
   - Coronary artery disease, heart failure, heart valve/muscle disease, or cerebrovascular disease141 (8.0)40 (16.7)< 0.001 
   - Diabetes152 (8.6)39 (16.3)< 0.001 
   - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma130 (7.4)35 (14.6)< 0.001 
   - Osteoarthritis or other types of arthritis440 (24.9)81 (33.8)0.003 
   - Cancer, malignancy, lymphoma81 (4.6)9 (3.8)0.559 
  Unintentional weight loss during the past 12 months, n (%)167 (9.4)37 (15.7)0.0032012
  Frailty phenotype, n (%)  < 0.0011971
   Robust977 (56.1)72 (31.3)  
   Pre-frail687 (39.5)121 (52.6)  
   Frail77 (4.4)37 (16.1)  
  1. aFor those who were admitted into a nursing home, died or dropped out before 2018, information of the year preceding institutionalization, death or drop-out was considered
  2. bamong the following: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardio−/cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pulmonary disease, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis or other arthritis, malignancy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease