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Table 1 Trajectories and characteristics of study participants, by sample

From: Formal home care use by older adults: trajectories and determinants in the Lc65+ cohort

 2004 sample
(N = 995)
2009 sample
(N = 1160)
Both
(N = 2155)
N 
Formal home care use trajectory between 2012 and 2018a, n (%)   2155#
 Non-users790 (79.4)995 (85.8)1785 (82.8)  
 New users125 (12.6)116 (10.0)241 (11.2)  
 Former users36 (3.6)23 (2.0)59 (2.7)  
 Continuing users44 (4.4)26 (2.2)70 (3.3)  
Predisposing factors
 Demographic
  Age in 2012, mean (SD)76.0 (1.4)70.8 (1.4)73.2 (2.9)2155#
  Female sex, n (%)600 (60.3)704 (60.7)1304 (60.5)2155 
 Social
  Born abroad (vs born in Switzerland), n (%)239 (24.0)313 (27.1)552 (25.7)2152 
  Highest level of educational attainment, n (%)   2152#
   Compulsory education219 (22.1)197 (17.0)416 (19.3)  
   Apprenticeship402 (40.5)461 (39.7)863 (40.1)  
   High school, university or equivalent371 (37.4)502 (43.3)873 (40.6)  
 Beliefs, knowledge and attitudes
  Knows very well or rather well what a home care organization is and what it can offer (vs rather no or not at all), n (%)691 (80.8)828 (78.5)1519 (79.5)1910 
  Would not hesitate at all to seek help from a home care organization in case of need (vs a little, a lot or would not seek help), n (%)489 (58.3)595 (57.1)1084 (57.6)1881 
  Among respondents that would hesitate to seek help from a home care organization (N = 797), n (%) afraid of
   - Losing their ability to decide for the organization of everyday life297 (88.9)385 (91.2)682 (90.2)756 
   - Losing their privacy266 (80.1)348 (82.9)614 (81.7)752 
   - Losing their ability to choose who comes home270 (82.1)325 (77.9)595 (79.8)746 
   - Seeing their household “invaded” by several people274 (82.5)319 (76.9)593 (79.4)747 
   - The heaviness of administrative procedures261 (79.6)321 (77.0)582 (78.1)745 
   - The waiting time before receiving help and care253 (76.7)307 (73.8)560 (75.1)746 
   - Looking fragile, impaired244 (74.9)304 (72.9)548 (73.8)743 
   - Home care fees230 (69.9)297 (70.9)527 (70.5)748 
Enabling factors
 Social support
  Without children, n (%)214 (21.6)242 (21.0)456 (21.3)2143 
  Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6) score of less than 12 (vs 12 or more), n (%)247 (26.0)231 (22.6)478 (24.2)1974 
  Lives alone, n (%)409 (41.4)485 (42.0)894 (41.7)2145 
 Available income and wealth
  Difficult financial situation, n (%)210 (24.8)250 (24.4)460 (24.6)1872 
 Organization and accessibility
  Number of years with the current attending physician, n (%)   1868#
   2 years or less96 (11.3)138 (13.5)234 (12.5)  
   3 to 10 years204 (24.1)293 (28.7)497 (26.6)  
   More than 10 years548 (64.6)589 (57.8)1137 (60.9)  
  Knows very well or rather well how to find a home care organization in case of need (vs rather no or not at all), n (%)550 (64.0)629 (60.4)1179 (62.0)1902 
Need factors
 Perceived
  Self-rated health reported as fair, poor or very poor (vs very good or good), n (%)341 (34.3)312 (26.9)653 (30.3)2155#
  Suffers since at least 6 months from, n (%)   2131 
   - Pain in articulations of legs, shoulders, arms or hands, or back pain632 (64.2)660 (57.6)1292 (60.6) #
   - Shortness of breath, difficult breathing155 (15.7)139 (12.1)294 (13.8) #
   - Memory lapses affecting everyday life, difficulty concentrating, or difficulty taking decisions in everyday life155 (15.7)155 (13.5)310 (14.6)  
   - Involuntary leakage of urine125 (12.7)146 (12.7)271 (12.7)  
  Depressed mood, anhedonia or both during the past 4 weeks, n (%)259 (26.3)258 (22.4)517 (24.2)2138#
  Mobility difficulties, n (%)483 (49.0)464 (40.4)947 (44.4)2133#
  Falls not associated with sport activity during the past 12 months, n (%)   2142#
   No763 (77.2)947 (82.1)1710 (79.8)  
   Yes, once174 (17.6)157 (13.6)331 (15.5)  
   Yes, several times51 (5.2)50 (4.3)101 (4.7)  
  Fear of falling, n (%)   2113#
   Not at all455 (46.7)641 (56.3)1096 (51.9)  
   Yes, without activity restriction387 (39.7)394 (34.6)781 (37.0)  
   Yes, with restriction from certain activities because of it133 (13.6)103 (9.1)236 (11.2)  
  Difficulty or need for help in one or more ADL/IADL, n (%)   2065#
   No difficulty or need for help in 2018a506 (53.2)755 (67.8)1261 (61.1)  
   Difficulty or need for help in 2018a, but not in 2012227 (23.9)197 (17.7)424 (20.5)  
   Difficulty or need for help in 2012 and 2018a218 (22.9)162 (14.5)380 (18.4)  
 Evaluated
  Number of diagnosed chronic health conditionsb reported during the past 12 months, n (%)   2135#
   0267 (27.2)365 (31.7)632 (29.6)  
   1289 (29.4)381 (33.1)670 (31.4)  
   More than 1427 (43.4)406 (35.2)833 (39.0)  
  Treated for or suffering from the following diagnosed chronic health conditions during the past 12 months, n (%)   2135 
   - Coronary artery disease, heart failure, heart valve/muscle disease, or cerebrovascular disease114 (11.6)92 (8.0)206 (9.7) #
   - Diabetes101 (10.3)117 (10.2)218 (10.2)  
   - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma89 (9.1)105 (9.1)194 (9.1)  
   - Osteoarthritis or other types of arthritis294 (29.9)282 (24.5)576 (27.0) #
   - Cancer, malignancy, lymphoma43 (4.4)57 (5.0)100 (4.7)  
  Unintentional weight loss during the past 12 months, n (%)116 (11.8)120 (10.4)236 (11.0)2140 
  Frailty phenotype, n (%)   2098#
   Robust466 (47.9)608 (54.0)1074 (51.2)  
   Pre-frail409 (42.1)460 (40.9)869 (41.4)  
   Frail97 (10.0)58 (5.2)155 (7.4)  
  1. aFor those who were admitted into a nursing home, died or dropped out before 2018, information of the year preceding institutionalization, death or drop-out was considered
  2. bAmong the following: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardio−/cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pulmonary disease, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis or other arthritis, malignancy, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease
  3. #Difference between both samples statistically significant at the 0.05 threshold