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Table 4 Characteristics of Identified Telemedicine Encounters in Validation Data Set

From: Validation of use of billing codes for identifying telemedicine encounters in administrative data

 Not TelemedicineLive Interactive TelemedicineStore and Forward Telemedicine 
Administrative Code AlgorithmNo GT or GQ Modifier AND not CPT code 99444GT modifier in absence of both GQ and CPT code 99444GQ modifier or CPT code 99444 
N5,909,46430875004p
Patient Age (years)   < 0.001
 0–17888,045 (15)57 (2)263 (5) 
 18–24314,227 (5)109 (4)339 (7) 
 25–44968,258 (16)753 (24)2769 (55) 
 45–641,601,736 (27)875 (28)1470 (29) 
 > 652,137,198 (36)1293 (42)163 (3) 
Patient Race   < 0.001
 Black666,111 (11)132 (4)198 (4) 
 White4,998,279 (85)2910 (94)4095 (82) 
 Other70,542 (1)15 (1)92 (2) 
 Missing174,532 (3)30 (1)619 (12) 
Patient Insurance   < 0.001
 Commercial2,757,532 (47)1044 (34)4159 (83) 
 Public2,899,994 (49)1963 (64)270 (5) 
 Self-Pay or Missing251,938 (4)80 (3)575 (12) 
Distance to tertiary care center (miles)  < 0.001
 0–91,993,372 (34)141 (5)2096 (42) 
 10–19989,090 (17)90 (3)1119 (22) 
 20–29509,346 (9)39 (1)534 (11) 
 30–59803,624 (14)526 (17)506 (10) 
 60–89841,962 (14)2006 (65)339 (7) 
 ≥90709,626 (12)230 (7)338 (7) 
 Missing62,444 (1)55 (2)72 (1) 
Residential County Rural/Urban Status  < 0.001
 Large metropolitan3,912,918 (66)342 (11)4050 (81) 
 Small Metropolitan1,169,892 (20)713 (23)472 (9) 
 Non-Metropolitan826,654 (14)2032 (66)482 (10) 
Encounter Date   < 0.001
 2016 Quarter 3 (July – Sept)1,004,107 (17)467 (15)699 (14) 
 2016 Quarter 4 (Oct – Dec)991,931 (17)430 (14)635 (13) 
 2017 Quarter 1 (Jan – Mar)999,649 (17)491 (16)935 (19) 
 2017 Quarter 2 (Apr – June)991,547 (17)572 (19)768 (15) 
 2017 Quarter 3 (July – Sept)1,002,313 (17)495 (16)838 (17) 
 2017 Quarter 4 (Oct – Dec)919,917 (16)632 (20)1129 (23) 
Encounter Provider Specialty   < 0.001
 Primary Care1,956,710 (33)48 (2)46 (1) 
 Emergency Medicine998,362 (17)0 (0)4240 (85) 
 Dermatology91,973 (2)0 (0)717 (14) 
 Medical Specialty1,442,710 (24)2247 (73)1 (0) 
 Surgical Specialty879,567 (15)580 (19)0 (0) 
 Pediatric Specialty96,208 (2)67 (2)0 (0) 
 Psychiatry205,831 (4)129 (4)0 (0) 
 Other238,103 (4)16 (1)0 (0) 
Unique Providers, number652210376NA
  1. Note: Abbreviations: CPT current procedural terminology