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Table 2 Diagnostic Agreement Between Different Billing Code Algorithms and Encounter Review Gold Standard

From: Validation of use of billing codes for identifying telemedicine encounters in administrative data

Encounter Review FindingClaims AlgorithmSensitivitySpecificityPPVNPV
Any TelemedicineGT or GQ present100%
(−-)
99.99%
(99.98–99.99%)
90.8%
(86.1–94.0%)
100%
(−-)
GT or GQ or 99444 present100%
(−-)
99.99%
(99.98–99.99%)
90.8%
(86.1–94.0%)
100%
(−-)
Live Interactive TelemedicineGT present100%
(−-)
99.93%
(99.92–99.95%)
51.4%
(42.0–60.7%)
100%
(−-)
GT present without GQ or 99444100%
(−-)
99.99%
(99.98–99.99%)
84.8%
(76.9–90.3%)
100%
(−-)
Store and Forward TelemedicineGQ present36.5%
(25.3–49.3%)
100%
(100–100%)
99.1%
(96.3–99.8%)
99.96%
(99.95–99.98)
GQ or 99444100%
(−-)
100%
(100–100%)
99.7%
(98.6–99.9%)
100%
(−-)
  1. Note: Abbreviations: PPV positive predictive value; NPV negative predictive value