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Table 1 Overview of main theme, three categories, and nine subcategories

From: Ethical challenges of seclusion in psychiatric inpatient wards: a qualitative study of the experiences of Norwegian mental health professionals

Theme
The relationship between treatment and control produces ethical challenges when seclusion is used.
Categories
The staff has a desire to provide good treatment during seclusion. The need for control provides treatment dilemmas during seclusion. It is challenging to work with patients being secluded.
Subcategories
The staff’s loyalty to the treatment plan is important for performing good seclusion. Threats and risk of violence make safety a priority over self-determination. Being ‘on seclusion’ places a psychosocial strain on staff.
A separate seclusion area is important for the quality of treatment during seclusion. Seclusion is used in conjunction with mechanical restraints. It is burdensome to work with patients when optimal solutions are lacking.
The staff experiences that patients are mainly negative towards seclusion. ‘Voluntary seclusion’ is coercion without specific legal basis. Restrictions provide a basis for reflection.