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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate analysis of “Whether the voucher can encourage the use of health services in private sector”

From: What is the long term impact of voucher scheme on primary care? Findings from a repeated cross sectional study using propensity score matching

    Univariate AnalysisMultivariate Analysis
VariableTotalNo
(n = 773)
Yes
(n = 754)
Adjusted Odds ratio (95% CI)P-valueAdjusted Odds ratio (95% CI)P-value
Demographic
 Sex
  Male650 (39.5)295 (38.2)316 (41.9)1 1 
  Female996 (60.5)478 (61.8)438 (58.1)0.81 (0.65–1.00)0.0520.78 (0.61–0.98)0.032
 Age
  70–74507 (30.8)225 (29.1)248 (32.9)1 1 
  75–79509 (30.9)239 (30.9)242 (32.1)0.92 (0.70–1.19)0.5140.94 (0.71–1.25)0.667
  80–84409 (24.8)196 (25.4)180 (23.9)0.80 (0.60–1.06)0.1170.81 (0.60–1.10)0.180
   ≥ 85221 (13.4)113 (14.6)84 (11.1)0.62 (0.43–0.88)0.0070.59 (0.40–0.85)0.005
 Living districts
  HK Islands425 (25.8)231 (29.9)164 (21.8)1 1 
  Kowloon579 (35.2)249 (32.2)302 (40.1)1.92 (1.46–2.54)< 0.0011.80 (1.34–2.42)< 0.001
  New Territories642 (39)293 (37.9)288 (38.2)1.32 (1.00–1.75)0.0521.30 (0.96–1.76)0.094
 Received social security assistance
  No1474 (89.6)708 (91.6)657 (87.1)1 1 
  Yes172 (10.4)65 (8.4)97 (12.9)1.55 (1.10–2.20)0.0131.36 (0.93–2.01)0.114
 Had health insurance coverage
  No1549 (94.1)714 (92.4)724 (96)1 1 
  Yes97 (5.9)59 (7.6)30 (4.0)0.54 (0.34–0.87)0.0110.45 (0.27–0.77)0.003
 Living status
  Living with others1251 (76)610 (78.9)557 (73.9)1  
  Living alone395 (24)163 (21.1)197 (26.1)1.31 (1.02–1.68)0.0361.25 (0.94–1.66)0.121
Health condition
 Doctor consultation in past one month
  No479 (29.2)210 (27.4)233 (30.9)1  
  Yes1160 (70.8)557 (72.6)520 (69.1)0.93 (0.72–1.20)0.583  
 Hospitalization in the past one year
  No1290 (78.9)606 (78.8)590 (78.9)1  
  Yes344 (21.1)163 (21.2)158 (21.1)0.90 (0.70–1.17)0.436  
 Health condition when compared with other people at the same age
  Better611 (39.1)292 (39.9)282 (39.4)1  
  Fair736 (47.1)350 (47.8)325 (45.5)0.94 (0.74–1.18)0.586  
  Worse216 (13.8)90 (12.3)108 (15.1)1.09 (0.78–1.54)0.603  
 Had chronic disease
  No327 (20)160 (20.8)139 (18.5)1  
  Yes1310 (80)608 (79.2)612 (81.5)0.95 (0.72–1.24)0.684  
 Usual source of care (prior to the use of vouchers)
  Public doctors only446 (29.3)238 (32.6)185 (26.9)1 1 
  Private doctors only332 (21.8)173 (23.7)130 (18.9)0.95 (0.69–1.3)0.7520.95 (0.69–1.32)0.778
  Both public and private doctors743 (48.8)320 (43.8)373 (54.2)1.31 (1.01–1.7)0.0411.28 (0.98–1.67)0.069
  1. Both analyses were adjusted by year and recruitment site
  2. Figures may not add up to total number of respondents since we exclude those saying “don’t know”/"don’t remember” or missing;
  3. P-value in univariate analysis indicates the statistical significance of the outcome measure i.e. whether to encourage private health services use with each independent variable
  4. Only significant variables (except sex and age) in univariate analysis were put into multivariate analysis