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Table 2 Detailed risk of bias and quality assessment using the QUIPs tool

From: The effectiveness of prescription drug monitoring programs at reducing opioid-related harms and consequences: a systematic review

Study Study participation Study attrition PMP measurement Outcome measurement Study confounding Statistical analysis and reporting
Ali 2017 [24] moderate low moderate moderate low low
Birk 2017 [43] low low moderate low low low
Branham 2018 [27] moderate low moderate low low low
Dave 2017 [44] low low moderate moderate low low
Delcher 2015 [50] low low low low low moderate
Kim 2013 [ 51] low low moderate moderate low low
Kinsell 2015 [ 40] low low low low low moderate
Li 2014 [ 52] low low low low low low
Maughan 2015 [ 25] low low low low low low
Mallatt 2017 [ 55] low low low low low low
McLaughlin 2016 [ 28] moderate low moderate moderate low low
Meara 2016 [ 48] low low moderate moderate low low
Meinhofer 2017 [ 53] moderate low low low high low
Nam 2017 [ 45] low low moderate moderate low low
Patrick 2016 [ 47] low low moderate moderate moderate low
Paulozzi 2011 [ 46] low low moderate moderate moderate low
Pauly 2018 [ 49] low low low low low low
Radakrishnan 2015 [ 39] low low moderate moderate low low
Reifler 2012 [ 42] low low low low moderate low
Reisman 2009 [ 19] low low low low moderate moderate
Simeone 2006 [ 41] low low moderate moderate high high
Surratt 2014 [ 26] low low low low moderate low
Overall % low 81.8% 100.0% 45.5% 54.5% 68.2% 81.8%
Overall % moderate 18.2% 0.0% 54.5% 45.5% 22.7% 13.6%
Overall % high 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 9.1% 4.6%