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Table 2 Overview over the outcome variables and covariates considered in the different study phases

From: Communication and patient safety in gynecology and obstetrics - study protocol of an intervention study

  Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3
T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2
Primary outcomes
 Communication competences1 X X X X X X
 Preventable adverse events (pAEs)2 X X X X X X
Secondary outcomes
 Healthcare provider satisfaction3 X X X X X X
 Patient/treatment satisfaction3 (patients/social support providers)    X X X X
 Training-related outcomes4 X X X X X X
 Personal outcomes5 X X X X X X
 Organizational outcomes
  Adherence safety culture6 X X X X X X
  Subjective safety culture7    X X X X
Covariates
 Socio-demographic variables including migration status8 X   X   X  
  1. Note: Examples for the measurements are:
  2. 1 Self-developed questionnaire
  3. 2 Operationalized via trigger events (such as unavailable staff, equipment failure, readmissions, length of stay, communication error) as defined by [54, 55]
  4. 3 Nurses’ job satisfaction scale [56]
  5. 4 HAPA questionnaire including outcome expectancies, goals and intentions/motivation, action planning and coping planning, behavior, self-efficacy, perceived stress see [25, 42, 4548]
  6. 5 Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, perceived social support [4, 57]
  7. 6 The Hygiene Inventory - 23 items (HI-23) [58]
  8. 7 Measures equivalent to the ones used in [59, 60]
  9. 8 Age, gender, education, professional experience, depressive symptoms, anxiety and migration [61, 62]