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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: The impact of electronic prescribing systems on healthcare professionals’ working practices in the hospital setting: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

Criteria Inclusion Exclusion
Time period All up until 19 November 2018  
Publication language English Any other publication language
Setting Studies that were conducted in one or more hospital settings – general hospitals, specialist hospitals, teaching hospitals or any other type of hospital Studies based in a primary care or outpatient setting: e.g. GP practices, ambulatory clinics, residential or nursing homes
Any inpatient group – including adult and paediatric patients, medical, surgical and critical care patients
Study design Any study design, including controlled, uncontrolled (such as uncontrolled before-and-after studies), observational (including cohort and case-controlled studies), descriptive (such as surveys) or qualitative designs Viewpoints, editorials, conference/meeting abstracts, expert opinions and grey literature.
Systematic or similar reviews (e.g. narrative, scoping and realist reviews) were excluded but their references were reviewed to identify relevant studies
Study participants Studies focusing on doctors, pharmacists and/or nurses working with hospital inpatients. If there were a mix of any other healthcare professionals (HCPs) within a study, the study was only included if the data among the HCP groups could be distinguished Studies that focused on other healthcare professionals e.g. physiotherapists, dieticians, occupational therapists unless the data could be extracted for the included healthcare professionals
Intervention Studies that focused on the impact of electronic prescribing (eP) systems on the working practices of healthcare professionals; these could include standalone eP systems or electronic prescribing and medication administration systems Studies that focused on the impact of paper-based systems for prescribing without any comparison with eP systems
The hospital could have a previously implemented eP system, or an eP system implemented during the course of the study Studies that focused only on the introduction or impact of barcoded medication administration/clinical decision support/alerts/mobile health technology
Papers related to the introduction or impact of barcode medication administration/clinical decision support/alerts/mobile health technology but with the main focus being eP Studies of a standalone discharge prescription system or specialist chemotherapy eP system