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Table 2 Results from the Finite Mixture Model of Anti-diabetic Drug Spending in the Medicare Study Sample (2011)

From: Association between physician adoption of a new oral anti-diabetic medication and Medicare and Medicaid drug spending

Medicare Characteristic Spending Component
Low High
Average Beta Coefficient Average Standard Error 95% CI Standard Error Average Beta Coefficient Average Standard Error 95% CI Standard Error
Intercept 7.480 0.069 [7.345, 7.615] 7.396 0.310 [6.789, 8.004]
Time to Sitagliptin Adoptiona 0.001 0.003 [− 0.005, 0.006] − 0.003 0.006 [− 0.016, 0.010]
% Adopting Sitagliptina 0.345 0.072 [0.203, 0.487] 0.148 0.258 [−0.359, 0.654]
Age − 0.002 0.000 [− 0.003, − 0.001] 0.001 0.001 [− 0.001, 0.003]
Female − 0.033 0.011 [− 0.054, − 0.012] −0.015 0.015 [−0.044, 0.013]
Race (Ref = White)
 Black −0.272 0.027 [−0.325, − 0.218] −0.443 0.017 [−0.475, − 0.410]
 Hispanic −0.218 0.030 [−0.277, − 0.160] −0.257 0.033 [−0.321, − 0.192]
 Race other −0.072 0.039 [−0.149, 0.004] 0.018 0.036 [−0.052, 0.088]
Eligibility
 Dual Eligible −0.006 0.022 [−0.048, 0.037] − 0.029 0.028 [− 0.084, 0.027]
 Low Income Subsidy 0.202 0.021 [0.161, 0.243] 0.305 0.025 [0.255, 0.354]
 Disabled −0.146 0.018 [−0.182, − 0.110] −0.113 0.018 [−0.148, − 0.077]
Drug Type (Ref = Combo)
 Oral only −2.252 0.013 [−2.278, −2.226] −2.108 0.017 [−2.142, − 2.074]
 Injection only − 0.178 0.017 [− 0.211, − 0.145] −0.260 0.023 [−0.305, − 0.216]
 Elixhauser −0.012 0.002 [−0.016, − 0.008] −0.007 0.003 [−0.012, − 0.002]
  1. Data sources: Medicare data from CMS, Medicaid data from PADHS, XPonent™ from QuintilesIMS
  2. aAdoption variables measured in XPonent™ from QuintilesIMS