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Table 3 Decomposition of inequality in inpatient service utilization

From: Can integration reduce inequity in healthcare utilization? Evidence and hurdles in China

  Pilot integrated area Non-integrated area
Marginal effect (βk) CIk Contribution to CI (%) Marginal effect (βk) CIk Contribution to CI (%)
Sex and Age
Male
 15–24(reference)       
 25–34 − 0.033** 0.063 −2.00% −0.026** − 0.010 0.16%
 35–44 − 0.026** 0.073 −2.20% −0.009 0.076 −0.56%
 45–54 − 0.017* 0.043 −0.93% −.0003 0.053 −0.02%
 55–64 −0.006 −0.071 0.62% 0.028** −0.065 −1.78%
 65− 0.019* −0.106 −2.49% 0.058** −0.065 −3.43%
Female
 15–24 0.109** 0.008 0.64% 0.160** −0.010 − 0.78%
 25–34 0.082** 0.101 8.57% 0.119** 0.028 2.28%
 35–44 −0.011 0.078 −1.05% 0 .012 0.096 1.07%
 45–54 − 0.013 0.022 −0.38% 0.009 0.042 0.41%
 55–64 −0.008 −0.046 0.51% 0.026** −0.060 −1.61%
 65− 0.015 −0.124 −2.35% 0.053** −0.064 −3.08%
Chronic disease
 Yes 0.066** 0.021 4.67% 0.095** 0.035 7.76%
 No (reference)       
Limitation of daily activities
 Yes 0.060** −0.126 −4.95% 0.041** − 0.124 −2.64%
 No (reference)       
Self−assessment health
 Very poor 0.155** −0.115 −0.65% 0.113** −0.038 −0.15%
 Poor 0.099** −0.116 −2.35% 0.124** −0.079 −1.59%
 Medium 0.078** −0.067 −6.55% 0.074** −0.064 −5.31%
 Good 0.027** −0.010 −1.35% 0.023** 0.003 0.25%
 Very good (reference)       
Education
 Illiterate (reference)       
 Primary school 0.004 −0.083 −2.74% 0.006 −0.086 −2.77%
 Secondary school −0.06 0.138 −2.17% −0.002 0.179 −0.69%
 College and above −0.015** 0.389 −10.81% −0.008 0.442 −4.02%
Occupation status
 Unemployment (reference)       
 Student −0.055** 0.059 −2.09% −0.066** 0.150 −4.13%
 Peasant −0.004 −0.296 4.21% 0.004 −0.201 −3.13%
 Worker −0.026** 0.100 −3.44% −0.015** 0.189 − 1.70%
 Business −0.031** 0.181 −9.75% −0.023** 0.200 −4.54%
 Manager −0.027** 0.293 −22.35% −0.016** 0.351 −9.71%
 Other −0.017** 0.052 −1.16% −0.017** 0.062 −0.93%
Marital status
 Other (reference)       
 Married 0.021** 0.015 3.32% 0.022** 0.014 2.39%
Household income
 Quintile I (reference)       
 Quintile II 0.033** −0.400 −36.32% 0.028** −0.400 −22.00%
 Quintile III 0.046** 0.000 0.04% 0.048** 0.000 0.02%
 Quintile IV 0.059** 0.401 65.21% 0.059** 0.400 47.01%
 Quintile V 0.075** 0.801 162.78% 0.081** 0.800 128.84%
Medical insurance
 UEBMI 0.040** 0.248 37.50% 0.030** 0.355 25.39%
 URBMI     0.017* 0.043 0.74%
 NRCMS     0.014* −0.184 −14.17%
 USBMI 0.029** 0.277 6.07%    
 URRBMI 0.027** −0.175 −37.49%    
 Mixed−insurance 0.046** 0.269 9.90% 0.025** 0.245 3.54%
 Uninsured and other (reference)       
Distance to the nearest health facilities
  < 1 km(reference)       
 1 − 4 km 0.008** −0.061 −2.56% 0.008** −0.101 −2.77%
  ≥ 5 km 0.019** −0.122 −0.82% 0.046** −0.228 −2.57%
Time to the nearest health facilities
  < 15 min (reference)       
 15 − 29 min −0.003 −0.063 0.47% −0.004 −0.067 0.54%
  ≥ 30 min −0.005 −0.265 0.90% −0.004 −0.288 0.77%
Preferred health facilities
 Primary facilities (reference)       
 Non − primary facilities 0.004 0.223 3.00% 0.006* 0.321 3.63%
Residence
 Urban (reference)       
 Rural 0.005* −0.196 −6.52% 0.013** −0.192 −12.69%
Region
 Eastern −0.029** 0.059 −13.05% −0.038** 0.087 −10.12%
 Middle −0.014** −0.135 3.13% −0.013** −0.002 0.09%
 Western (reference)       
  1. Quintile I was the poorest 20%,and the Quintile V was the richest 20%
  2. Note:*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01