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Table 3 Costs-of-illness of type 2 diabetes per person per year (in US$) by components of direct and indirect costs

From: Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh: a prevalence based cost-of-illness study

Cost components Mean Median 25thp, 75th p 90th p %
of total
Total
COI
% of total COI
Overall COI (n = 1263)
a. Direct cost
  i. Direct medical cost      96.9   
   Outpatient visit 11.8 6.3 2.2, 12.5 31.2 1.5 14,807.1 1.4
   Hospitalisationa 216.7 496.6 0, 276.7 673.1 27.7 271,490.4 12.7
   Medicine 474.5 331.0 205.3, 474.5 798.4 60.7 594,543.8 54.9
   Laboratory tests 37.7 34.0 23.3, 47.2 62.1 4.8 47,311.9 16.8
   Other service utilisation# 16.5 9.0 0, 18 54.0 2.1 20,718 1.8
  ii. Direct non-medical cost      3.1   
   Transportation 23.7 7.5 2.5, 27.5 62.5 3.0 29,748.7 2.8
   Meal 0.7 0.0 0, 0 2.5 0.1 931.4 0.1
Total direct cost 781.7 453.6 276.6, 893.4 1705.0 100 979,551.3 90.5
b. Indirect cost
  Productivity loss of patient 67.8 26.0 0, 62.5 145.8 81.8 85,062.5 7.9
  Productivity loss of accompanied person 15.1 0.0 0, 0 39.1 18.2 18,872.2 1.7
Total indirect cost 82.9 36.5 0, 82.8 187.5 100 103,934.8 9.5
Total cost 864.7 504.2 308.8, 982.7 1874.3   1,083,486.0  
Without hospital admission (n = 813)
 Direct cost
  i. Direct medical cost      93.9   
   Outpatient visit 5.9 5.0 1.25, 8.75 12.5 1.6 4801.6  
   Hospitalisationa  
   Medicine 307.2 255.5 173.4, 387.8 520.1 83.5 249,827.3  
   Laboratory tests 34.2 31.2 21.5, 41.8 53.9 9.3 27,828.6  
   Other service utilisationb 10.5 9.0 0, 9 18.0 2.8 8523.0  
  ii. Direct non-medical cost      2.8   
   Transportation 9.4 3.7 2, 8.75 21.0 2.6 7662.6  
   Meal 0.7 0.0 0, 0.6 2.3 0.2 524.5  
Total direct cost 367.9 320.1 227.9, 452.8 608.9 100 299,167.5  
Indirect cost
   Productivity loss of patient 34.7 24.7 0, 52.1 71.9 83.0 28,244.5  
   Productivity loss of accompanied person 7.1 0.0 0, 0 20.8 17.0 5790.9  
Total indirect cost 41.8 31.3 3.9, 62.5 93.7 100 34,035.4  
Total cost 409.8 366.6 261.9, 505.7 662.7   333,202.9  
With hospital admission (n = 440)
 Direct cost
  i. Direct medical cost      96.7   
   Outpatient visit 22.7 12.5 5, 37.5 51.3 1.5 10,005.5  
   Hospitalisationa 617.0 419.4 247.3, 753.2 1303.9 39.9 271,490.4  
   Medicine 783.4 469.9 346.7, 764.0 1455.4 50.7 344,716.5  
   Laboratory tests 44.3 41.8 29.7, 56.9 71.6 2.9 19,483.4  
   Other service utilisationb 10.0 9.0 9, 36 54.0 1.8 12,195.0  
  ii. Direct non-medical cost      3.3   
   Transportation 50.2 31.2 15, 62.5 112.5 3.2 22,086.1  
   Meal 0.9 0.0 0, 0 2.5 0.1 406.9  
Total direct cost 1546.3 1121.1 806.3, 1845.9 2927.7 100.0 680,383.8  
 Indirect cost
   Productivity loss of patient 129.1 35.1 0, 145.8 281.2 81.3 56,818.1  
  Productivity loss of accompanied person 29.7 0.0 0, 0 104.1 18.7 13,081.2  
Total indirect cost 158.9 67.7 0, 182.9 345.1 100.0 69,899.4  
Total cost 1705.2 1247.4 876.9, 1996.6 3353.8   750,283.2  
  1. aHospitalisation includes hospital stay, medicine and laboratory tests during stay. bOther service utilisation includes use of self-monitoring blood glucose and consumables