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Table 2 Details of annual cost in US$ by socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the study participants

From: Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Bangladesh: a prevalence based cost-of-illness study

Variables Direct cost Indirect cost Total cost
Mean Median (percentiles) Mean Median (percentiles) Mean Median (percentiles)
Genderb
 Male 795.2 456.1 (273.6, 893.4) 81.6 19.5 (0, 62.5) 876.9 497.9 (292.0, 977.3)
 Female 765.7 446.6 (278.8, 905.2) 84.4 52.1 (16.1, 93.7) 850.1 516.89 (332.7, 988.3)
Age (years)c
  ≤ 40 519.6 331.1 (205.4, 564.9) 68.8 41.6 (18.48, 72.91) 588.4 385.7 (241.0, 616.2)
 41–60 738.7 421.1 (270.3, 784.7) 103.0 52.1 (19.5, 104.2) 841.8 476.2 (310.1, 860.1)
 61–80 934.9 587.4 (337.1, 1168.9) 56.1 0 (0, 52.1) 991.0 613.7 (351.3, 1247.3)
  > 80 1376.9 1052.1 (682.9, 1845.5) 57.1 0 (0, 0) 1434.1 1133.1 (712.2, 1936.1)
Educationc
 Illiterate 575.3 421.1 (254.1, 705.5) 61.6 39.1 (3.6, 72.9) 636.9 437.2 (287.5, 775.3)
 Primary 759.5 513.1 (291.3, 958.0) 59.3 31.2 (0, 72.9) 818.9 536.41 (323.5, 1036.1)
 Secondary 874.1 483.1 (294.7, 989.4) 88.0 35.1 (0, 83.3) 962.1 529.2 (333.7, 1092.1)
 Tertiary 733.9 409.4 (224.6, 831.8) 104.5 41.6 (0, 91.1) 838.4 452.0 (261.2, 913.5)
Work statusc
 Unemployed 627.5 469.0 (298.7, 598.3) 48.0 0 (0, 0) 675.6 469.0 (298.7, 606.2)
 Employed 598.9 343.1 (217.8, 607) 116.0 41.6 (18.7, 87.5) 715.0 393.3 (255.3, 700.7)
 Housewives 798.9 488.3 (294.3, 936.7) 87.0 52.1 (20.8, 104.1) 885.9 533.6 (359.3, 1025.1)
 Retired 1027.0 617.4 (369, 1189.9) 34.8 0 (0, 10.9) 1061.9 644.3 (374.2, 1298.3)
Area of residencec
 Rural 359.8 291.3 (202.4, 442.2) 61.7 47.9 (11.4, 83.3) 421.6 369.0 (239.6, 522.3)
 Semi-urban 388.3 295.5 (228.1, 494.6) 48.1 33.2 (7.8, 70.3) 436.5 353.3 (253.7, 541.1)
 Urban 931.3 545.3 (324.9, 1089.6) 93.1 34.3 (0, 87.5) 1024.4 590.3 (361.4, 1205.4)
Monthly household income (US$)c
  ≤ 250 739.6 465.5 (258.1, 846.1) 65.2 31.2 (0, 78.1) 804.9 499.4 (289.5, 920.3)
 251–750 692.1 407.9 (267.6, 757.3) 64.6 41.66 (1.30, 72.9) 756.8 456.5 (305.2, 810.7)
 751 and above 986.8 571.8 (340.5, 1262.8) 138.0 41.6 (0, 125.0) 1124.9 499.4 (289.5, 920.3)
Duration of diabetes (in year)c
  ≤ 5 526.3 325.8 (220.8, 539.2) 53.7 32.6 (10.4, 67.1) 580.1 378.9 (260.2, 589.0)
 6–10 645.9 398.0 (258.3, 691.7) 61.4 41.6 (3.9, 72.9) 707.4 458.1 (292.5, 760.6)
  ≥ 11 1044.1 679.8 (378.8, 1251.3) 116.7 37.5 (0, 114.5) 1160.8 746.6 (418.3, 1442.5)
Mode of treatmentc
 OHA 476.2 291.4 (209.6, 511.2) 49.9 31.2 (4.0, 62.5) 526.17 335.0 (238.7, 534.3)
 Insulin 702.6 441.9 (224.3, 842.3) 67.2 41.6 (8.8, 83.3) 769.89 477.1 (259.8, 902.8)
 Insulin + OHA 970.9 586.0 (368.9, 1129.6) 104.2 41.6 (0, 104.1) 1075.20 642.7 (412.4, 1223.7)
Family history of diabetesb
 Yes 818.4 487.3 (287.0, 964.3) 97.1 41.6 (9.8, 93.7) 915.6 524.3 (321.7, 1100.8)
 No 762.4 441.4 (270.5, 879.9) 75.4 31.2 (0, 72.9) 837.9 493.1 (298.9, 954.2)
HbA1c (%)
 Good (≤6.9) 527.1 318.9 (205.9, 513.3) 84.5 31.2 (0, 65.1) 611.7 367.5 (234.2, 562.8)
 Fair (7–7.9) 552.1 366.6 (242.3, 637.5) 53.2 26.0 (0, 62.5) 605.4 409.9 (277.8, 665.1)
 Poor (≥8) 567.9 398.9 (267.2, 633.2) 58.5 36.4 (7.8, 72.9) 626.5 450.4 (300.7, 717.3)
Number of complicationa,c
 None 466.8 295.9 (207.3, 507.0) 56.3 31.2 (15.6, 65.1) 523.2 347.9 (237.8, 549.2)
 One or two 657.5 379.9 (261.8, 670.7) 81.9 36.4 (0, 83.3) 739.4 437.1 (293.5, 739.7)
 Three or more 1234.3 966.9 (511.1, 1519.8) 117.1 43.7 (0,130.2) 1351.5 1036.8 (547.8, 1718.5)
History of co-morbidityc
 None 595.5 354.2 (219.8, 580.7) 63.8 31.2 (10.4, 72.9) 659.3 418.2 (260.7, 632.8)
 Hypertension 870.1 533.9 (317.5, 1041.9) 94.3 41.6 (0, 91.1) 964.4 582.4 (362.7, 1150.3)
 Dyslipidaemia 566.8 332.6 (228.1, 561.9) 56.9 27.3 (9.1, 62.5) 623.7 376.1 (259.6, 608.8)
 Hypertension + dyslipidaemia 926.9 534.0 (313.7, 1041.3) 95.7 41.6 (0, 91.1) 1022.6 587.6 (365, 1143.5)
  1. OHA Oral hypoglycaemic agent, HTN Hypertension
  2. aComplications include coronary artery disease, stroke, diabetic foot, nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy. bMann Whitney U test and cKruskal Wallis test were done for group comparison; p-value was considered significant at p < 0.05