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Table 4 Rate of incidents at different settings and stages; their preventability and interventions

From: A cross-sectional study: medication safety among cancer in-patients in tertiary care hospitals in KPK, Pakistan

Variable Site 1 (CPOE) Site 2 (HWP) Total
N % N % N %
Setting of initial incidents
 Oncology ward 287 48.7 294 48.5 581 97.2
 Pharmacy 12 2 28 4.6 40 6.6
 Prescriber’s Office 285 48.4 269 44.4 554 92.8
 Patient home 10 1.7 10 1.7
 Other 5 0.8 5 0.8 10 1.6
Stages of initial error
 Physician 516 87.6 495 81.7 1011 169.3
  Consultant 372 63.2 389 64.2 761 127.4
  Medical Officer 139 23.8 96 15.8 235 39.6
  Fellow 10 1.7 10 1.7
  Resident 5 0.6 5 0.6
 Pharmacist 39 6.6 21 3.5 56 10.1
  Prescription receiving or checking 29 4.9 15 2.5 43 7.4
  Prescription filling 9 1.5 6 1 12 2.5
  Dispensing 1 0.2 1 0.2
 Nurse 25 4.3 75 12.3 100 16.6
  Medication received 24 4.1 62 10.2 86 14.3
  Administered 1 0.2 13 2.1 14 2.3
Patient Care Giver 14 2.4 5 0.8 19 3.2
Other 2 0.3 4 0.7 6 1
 Support personnel 2 0.3 2 0.3
  Health Profession Students 1 0.2 1 0.2
  Physician assistant 3 0.5 3 0.5
 Unknown 10 1.7 10 1.7
Stage of error discovery
 Physician 48 8.1 24 4 72 12.1
  Consultant 29 4.9 29 4.9
  Medical Officer 19 3.2 13 2.1 32 5.3
  Fellow 11 1.8 11 1.8
  Resident
 Pharmacist 482 81.8 14 2.3 496 84.1
  Prescription receiving or checking 378 64.2 11 2.1 389 66.3
  Prescription filling 90 15.3 3 0.5 93 15.8
  Dispensing 14 2.4 14 2.4
 Nurse 15 2.6 30 5 45 7.6
  Medication received 8 1.4 24 4 32 5.4
  Administered 7 1.2 6 1 13 2.2
Patient care giver 1 0.2 1 0.2
Other 44 7.5 536 88.4 580 95.9
  Health Profession Students 9 1.5 9 1.5
  Support personnel 1 0.2 1 0.2
  Physician Assistant 1 0.2 1 0.2
  Primary Investigator (PI) 42 7.1 527 86.9 569 94
Unknown 1 0.2 1 0.2
Rate of MEsa without harm and potential ADEsb
 MEs without harm 574 97.5 20 3.3 594 100.8
 Potential ADEs 15 2.5 586 96.7 601 99.2
Preventability of the event
 Preventability 582 98.8 601 99.2 1183 198
 Not-preventable 7 1.2 5 0.8 12 2
Total 589 100 606 100 1195  
Intervention
 Medical intervention 533 90.5 48 7.9 581 98.4
  1. a Medication errors, b Adverse drug events
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