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Table 2 Causes leading towards occurrence of incidents

From: A cross-sectional study: medication safety among cancer in-patients in tertiary care hospitals in KPK, Pakistan

Causes of incidents Site 1 (CPOE) Site 2 (HWP) Total
No. % Mean 95% CI Sig. (2-tailed) No. % Mean 95% CI Sig. (2-tailed)
Lower Upper   Lower Upper
Communication 21 3.5 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.000 58 9.7 0.19 0.14 0.24 0.000 79
Name and Sound confusion 1 0.2 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.318 1
Labeling 8 1.4 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.005 28 4.6 0.05 0.03 0.07 0.000 36
Packaging or design 6 1 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.014 6
Drug selection 198 33.6 0.34 0.3 0.37 0.000 235 38.8 0.39 0.35 0.43 0.000 433
Inappropriate drug form 54 9.2 0.09 0.07 0.12 0.000 27 4.5 0.05 0.03 0.06 0.000 81
Dose or dosage selection 233 39.6 0.40 0.36 0.44 0.000 93 15.3 0.15 0.13 0.28 0.000 326
Inappropriate duration of therapy 15 2.5 0.03 0.01 0.04 0.000 27 4.5 0.05 0.03 0.06 0.000 42
DRP*a with drug use in spite of instruction 6 1 0.02 0.00 0.03 0.033 6
DRPs*a related to logistics 2 0.3 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.157 66 10.9 0.10 0.08 0.13 0.000 68
DRPs*a related to the patient personality or behavior 7 1.2 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.008 7 1.2 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.008 14
Human factors (breakup) 369 62.6 0.63 0.59 0.67 0.000 438 72.3 0.72 0.68 0.75 0.000 807
       Knowledge deficit 55 9.3 0.09 0.07 0.12 0.000 57 9.4 0.09 0.07 0.11 0.000 112
       Performance deficit 137 23.3 0.23 0.20 0.27 0.000 162 26.7 0.29 0.25 0.33 0.000 299
       Dosage/rate Miscalculations 108 18.3 0.18 0.15 0.21 0.000 42 6.9 0.08 0.05 0.1 0.000 150
       System error 7 1.2 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.008 5 0.8 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.025 12
       Error in stocking 28 4.6 0.05 0.03 0.06 0.000 28
       Drug preparation or dilution error 5 0.8 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.025 14 2.3 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.000 19
       Transcription error 26 4.4 0.04 0.03 0.06 0.000 51 8.4 0.08 0.06 0.1 0.000 77
       High Volume workload 40 6.8 0.07 0.05 0.09 0.000 42 6.9 0.07 0.05 0.09 0.000 82
       Fatigue or lack of sleep 8 1.3 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.005 8
       Confrontational or intimidating behavior 43 7.3 0.07 0.05 0.09 0.000 135 22.3 0.21 0.18 0.25 0.000 178
Others (breakup) 115 19.5 0.20 0.16 0.23 0.000 247 40.8 0.40 0.36 0.44 0.000 362
      Lack of monitoring or cross checking practices 61 10.4 0.10 0.08 0.13 0.000 155 25.6 0.25 0.21 0.28 0.000 216
      Lack of all-time oncology pharmacist 14 2.4 0.02 0.01 0.04 0.000 44 7.3 0.07 0.05 0.09 0.000 58
      Less knowledge of antibiotic stewardship 27 4.6 0.05 0.03 0.06 0.000 18 3 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.000 45
     Unnecessary medicine/s 30 5.1 0.05 0.03 0.07 0.000 45 7.4 0.07 0.05 0.1 0.000 75
     Wrong drug combination/s 20 3.4 0.03 0.02 0.05 0.000 3 0.5 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.083 23
Total 1601       2042       3643
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