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Table 3 Previous experience of STI and partner notification

From: Pathways to, and use of, sexual healthcare among Black Caribbean sexual health clinic attendees in England: evidence from cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveys

  Women
(WBI women as reference category)
Men
(WBI men as reference category)
Comparisons by gender
Black Caribbean % White British/Irish % OR (95% CI), p AORf (95% CI), p Black Caribbean % White British/Irish % OR (95% CI), p AORg (95% CI), p among BC attendees (BC women as referents) among WBI attendees (WBI women as referents)
OR (95% CI), p AORh (95% CI), p OR (95% CI), p AORi (95% CI), p
Of all participants
Denominator 420 838    207 573       
 Ever before diagnosed with (or treated for) an STIa 61.2% 40.0% p < 0.001 2.37 (1.93–2.91) p < 0.001 2.54 (1.98–3.27) 60.9% 50.6% p = 0.016 1.52 (1.10–2.10) p = 0.006 1.67 (1.19–2.33) p = 0.923 0.99 (0.73–1.33) p = 0.025 0.57 (0.36–0.92) p = 0.005 1.54 (1.17–2.03) p = 0.063 1.29 (0.98–1.69)
Of those reporting previous STI diagnosis/treatmenta
Denominator 257 335    126 290       
 Last time this happened    p = 0.314 p = 0.331    p = 0.329 p = 0.647 p = 0.003 p = 0.226 p = 0.735 p = 0.055
 More than 12 months ago 61.5% 55.5% 49.2% 53.4%
 Within the last 12 months 38.5% 44.5% 0.78 (0.47–1.30) 0.80 (0.49–1.29) 50.8% 46.6% 1.19 (0.83–1.70) 1.10 (0.70–1.74) 1.65 (1.22–2.22) 1.35 (0.81–2.22) 1.09 (0.65–1.83) 1.32 (0.99–1.74)
 Last STI diagnosed/treated was a bacterial STI or trichomoniasis 71.6% 60.0% p < 0.001 1.68 (1.39–2.03) p < 0.001 1.97 (1.52–2.55) 74.6% 54.1% p = 0.002 2.49 (1.50–4.12) p < 0.001 3.37 (2.17–5.24) p = 0.481 1.17 (0.74–1.83) p = 0.675 1.17 (0.54–2.55) p = 0.177 0.79 (0.55–1.13) p = 0.029 0.57 (0.35–0.94)
Of those reporting bacterial STI(s) or trichomoniasis,c at last STI episode
Denominator 184 201    94 157       
 At that time, did the clinic staff advise you to inform your sexual partners to test for STIs/come to clinic?    p = 0.912 p = 0.941    p = 0.274 p = 0.207 p = 0.485 p = 0.369 p = 0.221 p = 0.230
 No 8.7% 9.5% } - 6.4% 10.8% } -   
 Can’t remember 7.1% 7.0% }   12.8% 15.3% }      
 Yes 84.2% 83.6% 1.05 (0.42–2.65) 1.04 (0.38–2.82) 80.9% 73.9% 1.49 (0.70–3.17) 1.59 (1.75–3.37) 0.79 (0.39–1.60) 0.60 (0.18–1.97) 0.56 (0.21–1.49) 0.53 (0.18–1.57)
 At that time, did you inform your sexual partners to test/take treatment for STIs?    p = 0.123 p = 0.767    p = 0.008 p = 0.006 p = 0.705 p = 0.654 p = 0.001 p = 0.020
 No, I didn’t tell any partners 6.0% 10.9% } 0.64 0.77 8.5% 20.4% } 0.28 0.30 1.15 0.77 2.62 2.12
 Can’t remember 7.1% 8.5% } (0.36-
} 1.15)
(0.37–1.58) 8.5% 8.3% } (0.12
} 0.68)
(0.14–0.67) (0.54–2.44) (0.22–2.69) (1.56–4.40) (1.15–3.94)
 Yes, I told SOME of my partners 6.5% 7.0% }   5.3% 15.3% }      
 Yes, I told ALL my partners 80.4% 73.6% 77.7% 56.1%
Of those reporting being diagnosed with (or receiving treatment for) bacterial STI(s)/ trichomoniasis,c at last STI episode AND who informed some/all partners
Denominator 160 162    78 112       
 At that time, how did you inform you sexual partners to test for STIs/come to clinic?b
 In person 67.7% 57.9% p = 0.184 1.53 (0.80–2.93) p = 0.229 1.42 (0.78–2.58) 65.4% 59.5% p = 0.442 1.29 (0.65–2.56) p = 0.613 0.83 (0.38–1.81) p = 0.706 0.90 (0.50–1.62) p = 0.831 0.91 (0.34–2.40) p = 0.810 1.07 (0.60–1.90) p = 0.060 1.81 (0.97–3.37)
 Via text message/email/ phone/social media 44.9% 54.1% p = 0.013 0.69 (0.53–0.91) p = 0.108 0.81 (0.62–1.05) 48.7% 57.7% p = 0.140 0.70 (0.43–1.14) p = 0.863 1.06 (0.51–2.22) p = 0.415 1.16 (0.79–1.72) p = 0.837 0.95 (0.58–1.56) p = 0.559 1.16 (0.69–1.94) p = 0.162 0.56 (0.24–1.30)
 Via a clinic health adviser/clinic staff 3.2% 2.5% p = 0.729 1.27 (0.30–5.31) p = 0.708 1.31 (0.29–6.00) 1.3% 0.9% p = 0.823 1.43 (0.05–41.7) p = 0.183 8.48 (0.32–222.8) p = 0.425 0.40 (0.04–4.42) p = 0.183 0.29 (0.04–1.92) p = 0.406 0.35 (0.03–4.79) p = 0.197 0.24 (0.03–2.29)
 Other 0.6% 1.3% p = 0.322 0.50 (0.11–2.19) p = 0.377 0.53 (0.12–2.36) 2.6% 1.8% p = 0.663 1.43 (0.25–8.23) p = 0.008 8.49 (1.91–37.75) p = 0.261 4.13 (0.31–55.42) p = 0.050 6.20 (1.00–38.46) p = 0.716 1.44 (0.17–11.89) p = 0.586 1.64 (0.25–11.83)
Of those reporting being diagnosed with (or receiving treatment for) bacterial STI(s)/trichomoniasis,c at last STI episode AND who informed SOME/NO partners
Denominator Black Caribbean women 23 White British/Irish women 36 Black Caribbean men 13 White British/Irish men 56
 At that time, why did you not inform (some of) your sexual partners to test for the infection/come to the clinic?b, e (Top 3 most commonly selected reasons) ‘I was embarrassed to tell my partner(s) about the infection’ ‘I did not have contact details of my partner(s)’ ‘I was embarrassed to tell my partner(s) about the infection’ ‘I did not have contact details of my partner(s)’
‘I was scared of telling my partner(s) about the infection’ ‘I was not too concerned about telling my casual / one-off partner(s)’ ‘I was worried that my partner(s) would leave me’ ‘I was embarrassed to tell my partner(s) about the infection’
[Joint 3rd most common responses:]
‘I did not have contact details of my partner(s)’
‘I was embarrassed to tell my partner(s) about the infection’ ‘I was scared of telling my partner(s) about the infection’ ‘I was not too concerned about telling my casual / one-off partner(s)’
‘I was not too concerned about telling my casual / one-off partner(s)’  
  1. Notes: Data in this table were reported by participants during the survey. Additional file 5 provides detailed data on other ethnic groups
  2. aSTIs listed included: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, genital warts (venereal warts), syphilis, Trichomonas vaginalis (Trich, TV), herpes (genital herpes), hepatitis B, NSU/NGU (non-specific urethritis/non-gonococcal urethritis), epididymitis, HIV. Only a small minority - 61 women and 40 men - reported having been diagnosed within the last 7 days (i.e. perhaps no opportunity for PN yet)
  3. bMultiple responses were permitted
  4. cChlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, NSU/NGU, epididymitis. We only included bacterial STIs and trichomoniasis in the questions about partner notification (PN) because they are acute infections for which PN should be addressed when diagnosed/treated. (Viral STIs may be chronic and require repeat treatments, and therefore there would not necessarily have been a routine PN discussion when last treated; furthermore, PN is not routinely advised for some viral STIs, e.g. warts, herpes) [24].
  5. dIncluding: via a friend, partner already knew, had already been told, or was tested at the same time; negative result/no STI (e.g. after waiting for results of testing for NGU); annoyance/anger at partner; no (other) partners to tell; used condom/protection with partner; wasn’t told to tell anyone; complicated nature of relationships with partners; can’t remember; didn’t feel the need to; etc.
  6. eSee Additional file 6 for full list of response options
  7. f,g,h,iAdjusted Odds Ratios are adjusted for variables which were statistically significant at p < 0.05 in Table 1:
  8. fFor the ethnic comparison among women: the following binary variables: born in UK, education, sexual orientation, > 5/5+ partners in past 12 months (other sexual partner number variables were omitted due to likely covariance)
  9. gFor the ethnic comparison among men: age as a continuous variable, and the following binary variables: born in UK, education, employment, sexual orientation, reporting regular but uncommitted partner(s)
  10. hFor the gender comparison among BC attendees: age as a continuous variable, and the following binary variables: education, sexual orientation, > 5/5+ partners in past 12 months (other sexual partner number variables were omitted due to likely covariance), reporting any steady partner(s), reporting any regular but uncommitted partner(s), reporting any casual partner(s), and self-perceived STI risk
  11. iFor the gender comparison among White British/Irish attendees: age as a continuous variable, and the following binary variables: employment, sexual orientation, > 5/5+ partners in past 12 months (other sexual partner number variables were omitted due to likely covariance), reporting any steady partner(s), reporting any casual partner(s), reporting condom use at last sex, and self-perceived STI risk