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Table 1 Sample characteristics, including comparisons by ethnicity and gender

From: Pathways to, and use of, sexual healthcare among Black Caribbean sexual health clinic attendees in England: evidence from cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveys

  Women Men Comparisons by gender
Black Caribbean % White British/ Irish % OR (95% CI): BC attendees compared to WBI (referent) p Black Caribbean % White British/ Irish % OR (95% CI): BC attendees compared to WBI (referent) p Among Black Caribbean attendees Among White British/Irish attendees
OR (95% CI): BC women as referent p OR (95% CI): WBI women as referent p
Denominator 420 838    207 573       
Age (years)     0.864     0.048   0.040   0.004
 15–24 45.2% 46.4%   35.3% 26.7%     
 25+ 54.8% 53.6% 1.05 (0.59–1.88)   64.7% 73.3% 0.67 (0.45–1.00)   1.52 (1.02–2.25)   2.38 (1.39–4.06)  
 Median 26 25    27 28       
  (IQR) (22–31) (21–30)    (22–34) (24–33)       
Born outside the UK 23.0% 8.8% 3.08 (1.33–7.11) 0.012 20.6% 9.5% 2.48 (1.27–4.86) 0.012 0.87 (0.47–1.61) 0.629 1.08 (0.69–1.69) 0.725
Education (above GCSEs or equivalent) 77.6% 84.9% 0.62 (0.46–0.83) 0.004 68.8% 83.8% 0.43 (0.26–0.70) 0.003 0.64 (0.46–0.89) 0.012 0.92 (0.75–1.13) 0.410
In any form of employment 70.9% 71.8% 0.96 (0.67–1.37) 0.806 73.9% 83.1% 0.57 (0.38–0.88) 0.014 1.16 (0.78–1.74) 0.435 1.94 (1.28–2.93) 0.004
Sexual orientation     0.033     0.004   0.040   < 0.001
 Heterosexual 94.3% 92.4%   87.7% 75.4%    
 Bisexual/homosexual/rather not saya,b 5.7% 7.6% 0.74 (0.56–0.97)   12.3% 24.6% 0.43 (0.25–0.73)   2.29 (1.04–5.03)   3.95 (2.19–7.12)  
Number of sexual partners, last 12 months
     0.012     0.109   < 0.001   < 0.001
 1 48.6% 41.1%   15.7% 22.4%    
  > 1 51.4% 58.9% 0.74 (0.59–0.93)   84.3% 77.6% 1.55 (0.90–2.69)   5.08 (2.88–8.97)   2.42 (1.86–3.15)  
     < 0.001     0.797   < 0.001   < 0.001
  < 5 91.5% 82.7%   61.6% 60.5%    
 5 or more 8.5% 17.3% 0.44 (0.31–0.63)   38.4% 39.5% 0.95 (0.64–1.42)   6.75 (4.08–11.17)   3.12 (2.40–4.04)  
Any new sexual partners, past 12 months 52.9% 68.6% 0.52 (0.40–0.66) < 0.001 82.6% 82.7% 0.99 (0.64–1.53) 0.963 4.21 (2.37–7.48) < 0.001 2.19 (1.70–2.84) < 0.001
Current partnership(s)d
 Steady 62.6% 63.7% 0.95 (0.75–1.20) 0.659 47.3% 48.7% 0.94 (0.67–1.33) 0.719 0.54 (0.34–0.83) 0.010 0.54 (0.41–0.72) < 0.001
 Uncommitted regular 22.3% 23.3% 0.94 (0.82–1.10) 0.404 35.2% 21.5% 1.98 (1.44–2.72) < 0.001 1.89 (1.13–3.17) 0.020 0.90 (0.68–1.19) 0.432
 Casual 21.7% 21.4% 1.02 (0.76–1.36) 0.888 37.6% 41.5% 0.85 (0.58–1.25) 0.378 2.17 (1.23–3.82) 0.011 2.61 (2.06–3.30) < 0.001
 None 15.7% 18.7% 0.81 (0.58–1.13) 0.195 17.1% 17.0% 1.01 (0.69–1.49) 0.962 1.11 (0.76–1.62) 0.563 0.89 (0.61–1.29) 0.501
Condom use at last sex with most recent sexual partnere 31.9% 28.7% 1.16 (0.77–1.74) 0.442 35.1% 34.4% 1.03 (0.72–1.49) 0.850 1.16 (0.70–1.91) 0.538 1.30 (1.01–1.67) 0.040
Self-perceived risk of STIf     0.275     0.830   < 0.001   < 0.001
 Considers self at risk of one or more STIs 41.7% 46.1%   71.0% 72.1%    
 ‘I don’t think I am at risk of getting any STI’ 58.3% 53.9% 1.20 (0.85–1.68)   29.0% 27.9% 1.05 (0.64–1.74)   0.29 (0.17–0.50)   0.33 (0.22–0.51)  
  1. Notes: Data in this table were reported by participants during the survey. Additiona file 1 provides detailed data on other ethnic groups
  2. aNumbers answering ‘rather not say’ were small (21 women, 16 men), and were combined with participants identifying as homosexual or bisexual, for increased statistical power
  3. bInstead of completing our survey, 15 BC men who have sex with men (MSM) and 85 WBI MSM completed another survey targeted at MSM and provided linked data for that survey, and so our survey slightly under-sampled MSM. This did not affect women participants
  4. cIncluding opposite- and same-sex partners. Those reporting no sexual partners in the last 12 months were ineligible for the survey, reflecting the STI focus of our research programme
  5. d‘Steady’: married, and/or committed but unmarried. ‘Uncommitted regular’: not in a committed relationship but have sex regularly. ‘Casual’: have sex but not regularly and/or one-off sex partner(s). Participants could select more than one current partnership(s) type
  6. eResponse option ‘we only had oral sex’ (selected by n = 85) was treated as missing, as this (pre-defined) response option was ambiguous, for the purpose of this analysis (i.e. oral sex on a man can be with or without a condom)
  7. fBased on responses to the question: ‘Thinking about your current sexual lifestyle, which of the following STIs do you think you may be at risk of?’ Response options comprised a list of STIs including HIV, and a ‘no risk’ response option, as provided in the table