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Table 6 Difference-in-differences estimates of effect of Enhanced Primary Care on the multimorbid population (robustness checks)

From: Effects of non-medical health coaching on multimorbid patients in primary care: a difference-in-differences analysis

  Robustness check 1 Robustness check 2 Robustness check 3
(Alternative control group) (Medium-term effects) (Simplified analysis)
Outcomes N Adjusteda difference-in-differences (95% CI) N Adjusteda difference-in-differences (95% CI) N Adjusteda difference-in-differences (95% CI)
Health status
 EQ-5D-5L 81,924 −0.0266 (−0.0702 to 0.0171) 874,075 −0.0104 (−0.0550 to 0.0340) 874,075 0.0014 (−0.0158 to 0.0186)
 Physical functioning 85,457 −0.0084 (−0.0460 to 0.0292) 919,785 0.0078 (−0.0425 to 0.0582) 919,785 0.0096 (−0.0076 to 0.0268)
 Psychological wellbeing 85,923 −0.0150 (−0.0150 to 0.1124) 924,974 −0.0514 (−0.0705 to -0.0324)‡‡ 924,974 −0.0090 (−0.0301 to 0.0121)
 Resilience 86,295 −0.0166 (−0.0803 to 0.0470) 931,207 0.0161 (−0.0168 to 0.0489) 931,207 0.0062 (−0.0090 to 0.0214)
Experience of care
 Person-centeredness 78,939 −0.0331 (−0.0566 to -0.0100)‡‡ 854,635 −0.0212 (−0.0534 to 0.0110) 854,635 −0.0068 (−0.0218 to 0.0082)
 Continuity of care 62,872 −0.0742 (−0.2108 to 0.0624) 622,963 −0.0340 (−0.1042 to 0.0361) 622,963 −0.0141 (−0.0530 to 0.0248)
Health behaviour
 Smoking habit 87,912 −0.0022 (−0.0349 to 0.0304) 952,453 0.0220 (−0.0204 to 0.0644) 952,453 −0.0160 (−0.0344 to 0.0023)
Health care utilisation
 Primary care utilisationb 88,595 −0.0402 (−0.1028 to 0.0223) 959,800 0.0025 (−0.0244 to 0.0294) 959,800 0.0064 (−0.0070 to 0.0197)
  1. aAdjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, employment status, number of chronic conditions, time since last GP appointment, and practice and time fixed effects
  2. bAdjusted for gender, age, ethnicity, employment status, number of chronic conditions, and practice and time fixed effects
  3. p < 0.05, ‡‡p < 0.01