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Table 5 Number of occurrences of each task performed by a healthcare worker at the patient bedside over a 240 min initiation period or a 240 min maintenance period

From: Bubble CPAP and oxygen for child pneumonia care in Malawi: a CPAP IMPACT time motion study

Task, mean number of occurrences (SD) bCPAP Initiation (n = 12) Oxygen Initiation (n = 11) p value bCPAP Maintenance (n = 17) Oxygen Maintenance (n = 15) p value
All 103.58 (42.29) 77.18 (15.92) 0.07 46.18 (27.47) 30.00 (12.51) 0.04
Non-trial tasks
 All 99.25 (41.56) 72.82 (15.67) 0.06 46.18 (27.47) 30.00 (12.51) 0.04
 Communication 16.00 (9.66) 11.27 (4.88) 0.16 5.94 (5.45) 13.60 (3.94) < 0.01*
 Documentation 11.67 (4.68) 12.36 (5.07) 0.74 6.35 (3.33) 5.73 (2.55) 0.56
 Physical Exam 1.42 (1.08) 1.09 (1.45) 0.54 1.94 (3.65) 1.60 (1.12) 0.73
 Vital signs 2.92 (1.56) 3.64 (2.16) 0.37 2.65 (1.66) 1.87 (0.83) 0.11
 Adjustment of equipment 8.58 (2.78) 3.00 (2.10) < 0.01* 4.47 (3.32) 1.00 (1.20) < 0.01*
 Adjustment of nasal Interface 9.17 (4.88) 2.55 (2.16) < 0.01* 2.65 (2.87) 0.73 (1.58) 0.03*
 Suctioning 0.58 (1.24) 0.55 (1.21) 0.95 0.24 (0.56) 0.20 (0.56) 0.84
 Blood draw 3.92 (2.19) 3.73 (1.56) 0.81 0.12 (0.33) 0.13 (0.35) 0.93
 Medication Administration 0.83 (0.94) 1.55 (1.29) 0.14 1.12 (1.58) 0.73 (0.80) 0.40
 Feeding 0.83 (1.40) 0.09 (0.30) 0.10 0.24 (0.56) 0.00 (0.00) 0.11
 Not otherwise specified 6.83 (7.79) 4.91 (2.84) 0.45 1.59 (2.37) 0.67 (1.11) 0.18
Trial-specific tasks
 All 4.33 (1.23) 4.36 (0.50) 0.94 N/A N/A N/A
 Video recording of breathing 2.17 (0.94) 2.36 (3.73) 0.87 N/A N/A N/A
 Digital lung auscultation recording 2.17 (0.72) 2.00 (0.45) 0.51 N/A N/A N/A
  1. bCPAP indicates bubble continuous positive airway pressure; SD, standard deviation; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus
  2. *p < 0.05 considered statistically significant
  3. N/A = not applicable. There were no study specific tasks performed during the maintenance phase of this study. All study specific tasks occurred during initiation of treatment
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