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Table 4 Identified meta-synthesis, themes, subthemes and effect sizes

From: Healthcare middle managers’ experiences of developing capacity and capability: a systematic review and meta-synthesis

Meta-synthesis: HMMs develop capacity and capability through personal development processes empowered by context
Study number Theme 1: Personal development of capacity and capability Theme 2: A need for contextual support
Effect Size: 96% (22 of 23 studies) Effect Size: 91% (21 of 23 studies)
Subtheme 1a:
A learning process
Effect size: 96% (22 of 23 studies)
Subtheme 1b: Identification as a confident leader
Effect size: 78%
(18 of 23 studies)
Subtheme 2a: Networking
Effect size: 83%
(19 of 23 studies)
Subtheme 2b: Empowered by upper management
Effect size: 65%
(15 of 23 studies)
1 + +   
2    + +
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23 + +   +
  1. (+ indicates the number of studies in which a theme is addressed, while an empty spot indicates that a theme was not addressed)