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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of sample (n = 332)

From: An investigation of Australian osteopaths’ attitudes, skills and utilisation of evidence-based practice: a national cross-sectional survey

Characteristic Frequency
Age, n (%)
20–29 years 52 (15.7)
30–39 years 109 (32.8)
40–49 years 72 (21.7)
50–59 years 39 (11.7)
60–69 years 13 (3.9)
70+ years 2 (0.6)
Missing 45 (13.6)
Sex, n (%)
Female 172 (51.8)
Male 113 (34.0)
Other 2 (0.6)
Missing 45 (13.6)
Highest qualification, n (%)
Diploma/Advanced Diploma 11 (3.3)
Bachelor degree 50 (15.1)
Honours degree 11 (3.3)
Graduate Certificate/Diploma 12 (3.6)
Master’s degree 198 (59.6)
PhD/Professional doctorate 5 (1.5)
Missing 45 (13.6)
Years since receiving highest qualification, n (%)
  < 1 year 14 (4.2)
1–5 years 63 (19.0)
6–10 years 64 (19.3)
11–15 years 69 (20.8)
16+ years 77 (23.2)
Missing 45 (13.6)
Years practiced in the field of osteopathy, n (%)
< 1 year 10 (3.0)
1–5 years 49 (14.8)
6–10 years 66 (19.9)
11–15 years 64 (19.3)
16+ years 98 (29.5)
Missing 45 (13.6)
Hours per week in clinical (osteopathic) practice, n (%)
0 h 2 (0.6)
1–15 h 43 (13.0)
16–30 h 108 (32.5)
31–45 h 112 (33.7)
46+ hours 22 (6.6)
Missing 45 (13.6)
Hours per week participating in research, n (%)
0 h 159 (47.9)
1–15 h 121 (36.5)
16–30 h 4 (1.2)
31–45 h 1 (0.3)
46+ hours 1 (0.3)
Missing 46 (13.9)
Hours per week teaching in the higher education sector, n (%)
0 h 236 (71.1)
1–15 h 41 (12.4)
16–30 h 8 (2.4)
31–45 h 1 (0.3)
46+ hours 0 (0.0)
Missing 46 (13.9)
Treatments typically provided in first osteopathic consultation, n (%)
Articulation 263 (79.2)
Soft tissue therapy 246 (74.1)
Muscle energy therapy 240 (72.3)
HVLA thrust 212 (63.9)
Exercise 209 (63.0)
General osteopathic treatment 185 (55.7)
Myofascial release 181 (54.5)
Strain-counterstrain 160 (48.2)
Functional technique 112 (33.7)
Relaxation advice 104 (31.3)
Cranial technique 77 (23.2)
Other 70 (21.1)
Visceral therapy 57 (17.2)
Acupuncture/acupressure 26 (7.8)
Ice/cold treatment 24 (7.2)
Orthotics 6 (1.8)
Electrotherapy 5 (1.5)
Steroid injection 1 (0.3)
Clinical setting in which osteopathy was predominantly practiced, n (%)
With a group of CAM providers 102 (30.7)
Solo practice 76 (22.9)
With a group of conventional providers 69 (20.8)
With CAM & conventional providers 34 (10.2)
Within an educational institution 3 (0.9)
Missing 48 (14.5)
Geographical location, n (%)
Victoria 151 (45.5)
New South Wales 78 (23.5)
Queensland 27 (8.1)
Tasmania 13 (3.9)
Western Australia 7 (2.1)
South Australia 5 (1.5)
Australian Capital Territory 2 (0.6)
Northern Territory 1 (0.3)
Missing 48 (14.5)
Osteopathy professional association membership, n (%)
Osteopathy Australia 268 (80.7)
Not a member of an Osteopathy professional association 9 (2.7)
Chiropractic and Osteopathic College of Australasia 4 (1.2)
Other 2 (0.6)
Missing 49 (14.8)
Geographical region, n (%)
Inner city suburbs 107 (32.2)
Outer city suburbs 88 (26.5)
Rural/remote region 58 (17.5)
City (Central business district) 26 (7.8)
Missing 53 (16.0)
  1. CAM Complementary and alternative medicine, HVLA high-velocity low amplitude