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Table 5 Generalised linear model with total QALYs at 12 months for the whole group

From: Factors associated with costs and health outcomes in patients with Back and leg pain in primary care: a prospective cohort analysis

  Coefficient (SE) n = 557
Constant 0.577 (0.140)**
General Health
 SF-1 general health −0.079 (0.019)***
 RMDQ −0.008 (0.004)**
Pain variables
 Duration of current episode of leg pain (< 6 weeks)
  6–12 weeks −0.014 (0.041)
  Over 3 months −0.049 (0.037)
 Pain intensity– highest of leg or back pain −0.066 (0.012)***
Psychological measures and perceptions
Illness perception:
 Identityd −0.006 (0.013)
 Timeline acutea (Strongly disagree/disagree/neither)
  Agree/strongly agree −0.079 (0.032)**
 HADs depression −0.022 (0.004)***
Personal characteristics
 Age −0.002 (0.001)
 Sex (Female)b 0.067 (0.032)**
 BMI −0.003 (0.002)
 Comorbiditiesc −0.038 (0.036)
Care pathways-unadjusted (0–2 physiotherapy sessions)
 3 or more physiotherapy sessions 0.004 (0.032)
 Referrals to specialist spinal services −0.119 (0.051)**
AIC: 0.99 BIC: − 3333.46
  1. RMDQ Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, SE Standard Error, HADs Hospital and Anxiety Depression scale
  2. ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05
  3. aTimeline; illness/condition duration: ‘my back and / or leg problem will last for a long time’). Timeline is measured on a Likert scale; strongly disagree - Disagree - Neither agree or disagree - Agree - Strongly agree. For the purposes of the analysis it was dichotomised ((agree (agree, strongly agree) versus disagree (strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree nor disagree))
  4. bSex is measured as 1 Female 0 Male
  5. cComorbidities included none, one, 2 or more chest problems, heart problems, raised BP, diabetes, circulation problems in leg(s)
  6. dIdentity; Symptom attribution to the condition from a list of 7 potential symptoms: back pain, leg pain, unable to sit comfortably, fatigue, stiff joints, sleep difficulties, loss of strength. The score is the sum of symptoms experienced The list of the 7 potential symptoms was chosen by the research team