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Table 1 Frequency of use and usefulness of methods of solving ethical problems (sum variable scores)

From: Ethical problems in nursing management – a cross-sectional survey about solving problems

Sum variables No. Mean Median SD Min. Max. Cronbach’s α
Frequency of using methods (range 1–5)
a. Discussion and deliberation (12 items) a 214 3.19 3.09 0.50 1.92 4.67 0.771
b. Use of outside experts (7 items) b 214 2.08 2.00 0.52 1.00 3.43 0.708
c. Written instructions and ethical principles (8 items) 213 2.73 2.67 0.75 1.13 4.50 0.875
d. Acts and degrees (5 items) 211 2.85 2.75 0.89 1.00 5.00 0.829
e. Work arrangements (8 items) 214 2.83 2.88 0.57 1.13 4.25 0.734
Usefulness of methods (range 1–4)
f. Discussion and deliberation (12 items) c 213 3.56 3.60 0.33 2.56 4.00 0.806
g. Use of outside experts (7 items) d 210 3.12 3.00 0.51 1.57 4.00 0.849
h. Written instructions and ethical principles (8 items)e 207 3.30 3.33 0.47 2.00 4.00 0.890
i. Acts and degrees (5 items) 203 3.50 3.60 0.48 2.00 4.00 0.899
j. Work arrangements (8 items) 210 3.41 3.41 0.43 2.00 4.00 0.822
  1. a Mean value higher compared to sum variables b, c, d and e, p < .0001
  2. b Mean value lower compared to sum variables a, c, d and e, p < .0001
  3. c Mean value higher compared to sum variables g and h, p < .0001, and sum variable j, p = 0.0004
  4. d Mean value lower compared to sum variables f, h, i and j, p < .0001
  5. e Mean value lower compared to sum variable i, p < .0001, and sum variable j, p = 0.0071