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Table 5 Differential Effect of Quantitiy/Quality of Clinics on Health Outcomes by Mother’s characteristics

From: The impacts of quantity and quality of health clinics on health behaviors and outcomes in Nigeria: analysis of health clinic census data

  Antenatal care (at least 1) Antenatal care (at least 4) Institutional delivery Postnatal care Complete Vaccination HAZ Stunting
Panel: Education (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
% high HF within 5 km (comparison: % low HF within 5 km) 0.284*** (0.025) 0.238*** (0.028) 0.116*** (0.021) 0.044 (0.028) 0.075*** (0.024) 29.507*** (11.234) −0.050* (0.027)
% high-middle HF within 5 km (comparison: % low HF within 5 km) 0.191*** (0.023) 0.220*** (0.025) 0.049*** (0.019) 0.049* (0.026) 0.045** (0.021) 5.528 (10.119) −0.001 (0.025)
% low-middle HF within 5 km (comparison: % low HF within 5 km) 0.212*** (0.023) 0.198*** (0.025) 0.046** (0.019) 0.070*** (0.026) 0.011 (0.022) −6.520 (10.409) 0.017 (0.025)
Education (secondary or higher) 0.221*** (0.025) 0.221*** (0.028) 0.164*** (0.021) 0.085*** (0.028) 0.092*** (0.024) 10.479 (11.120) −0.050* (0.027)
% high HF within 5 km * Education −0.171*** (0.032) − 0.121*** (0.036) 0.029 (0.027) 0.028 (0.037) 0.070** (0.031) 7.253 (14.489) 0.004 (0.035)
% high-middle HF within 5 km * Education −0.134*** (0.033) −0.129*** (0.037) 0.012 (0.028) 0.003 (0.037) 0.026 (0.032) 14.774 (14.728) −0.012 (0.036)
% low-middle HF within 5 km * Education −0.165*** (0.040) −0.108** (0.045) − 0.051 (0.034) 0.003 (0.046) 0.028 (0.039) 44.425** (18.219) −0.034 (0.044)
constant 0.338*** (0.074) 0.074 (0.081) 0.272*** (0.061) −0.028 (0.083) −0.051 (0.070) − 637.852*** (33.568) 1.404*** (0.082)
N 16,988 16,988 25,273 16,928 24,917 22,682 22,681
r2 0.054 0.049 0.060 0.017 0.023 0.017 0.013
LGA FE X X X X X X X
Panel B: Wealth (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
% high HF within 5 km (comparison: % low HF within 5 km) 0.292*** (0.027) 0.241*** (0.030) 0.101*** (0.023) 0.053* (0.031) 0.063** (0.026) 24.765** (12.365) −0.064** (0.030)
% high-middle HF within 5 km (comparison: % low HF within 5 km) 0.200*** (0.024) 0.220*** (0.027) 0.050** (0.020) 0.050* (0.027) 0.065*** (0.023) 15.360 (10.909) −0.020 (0.027)
% low-middle HF within 5 km (comparison: % low HF within 5 km) 0.237*** (0.023) 0.230*** (0.026) 0.074*** (0.019) 0.094*** (0.027) 0.026 (0.022) 0.724 (10.679) 0.012 (0.026)
Wealth = middle, richer, richest 0.233*** (0.021) 0.212*** (0.023) 0.115*** (0.017) 0.091*** (0.024) 0.048** (0.020) 16.566* (9.441) −0.059** (0.023)
% high HF within 5 km * Wealthy −0.160*** (0.033) −0.110*** (0.037) 0.026 (0.028) −0.016 (0.038) 0.049 (0.032) 4.940 (15.019) 0.047 (0.037)
% high-middle HF within 5 km * Wealthy −0.123*** (0.031) −0.100*** (0.034) − 0.007 (0.026) −0.017 (0.035) − 0.039 (0.029) −17.186 (13.907) 0.048 (0.034)
% low-middle HF within 5 km * Wealthy −0.223*** (0.035) −0.206*** (0.038) − 0.144*** (0.029) −0.100** (0.039) − 0.041 (0.033) 1.261 (15.480) 0.005 (0.038)
constant 0.334*** (0.074) 0.069 (0.081) 0.261*** (0.061) −0.038 (0.083) − 0.061 (0.070) − 639.553*** (33.564) 1.408*** (0.082)
N 16,988 16,988 25,273 16,928 24,917 22,682 22,681
r2 0.055 0.050 0.061 0.017 0.024 0.017 0.013
LGA FE X X X X X X X
  1. Notes: Covariates include wealth index, mother’s education in years, marital status, mother’s height, mother’s age, # household members, # household members under 5, rural. The quality of health facility is determined by the following elements; If the clinic has 1) improved water supply, 2) improved sanitation, 3) electricity, 4) refrigerator/freezer for vaccines, 5) antenatal care service, 6) family planning service, 7) malaria treatment service, 8) emergency transport service, 9) child delivery service, 10) skilled birth attendant, 11) caesarian-section service, 12) measles vaccination service. We divide the health facilities into 3 categories – low, middle, and high quality. If the total number of services available out of 11 service is 4 or less, the clinic has low quality. If it is more than 4 but less than 8, then the clinic has middle quality. If it is more than 8, then the clinic has high quality. * significant at 10%; ** significant at 5%; *** significant at 1%