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Table 5 Effects of Cost-sharing Elimination and Covariates on Self-Reported Utilization. (Odds Ratio, Confidence Interval (CI), P-value)

From: Effectiveness of Medicare cost-sharing elimination for Cancer screening on utilization

  Annual Mammogram (Women > = 40) (2007–2012) Biennial Pap Smear (All women) (2007–2012) Had Colonoscopy Within Past 5 Years (All men and women > = 50) (2007–2013) Ever Had Colonoscopy or Sigmoidoscopy (All men and women > = 50) (2007–2013)
Odds Ratio 95% CI P-value Odds Ratio 95% CI P-value Odds Ratio 95% CI P-value Odds Ratio 95% CI P-value
Transition: 2011–2012 0.98 0.87–1.12 0.81 0.71 0.62–0.81 < 0.001 0.91 0.81–1.02 0.11 1.02 0.90–1.16 0.76
Post-policy: 2013 N/A N/A 0.76 0.62–0.93 0.01 0.90 0.72–1.13 0.37
Continuous year indicator 0.95 0.92–0.98 < 0.001 1.12 1.07–1.16 < 0.001 1.03 0.99–1.07 0.15 1.08 1.04–1.13 < 0.001
Having a private supplemental insurance 1.95 1.72–2.22 < 0.001 1.46 1.21–1.77 < 0.001 1.85 1.66–2.05 < 0.001 1.99 1.78–2.22 < 0.001
Income level: Poor (Ref: High Income) 0.69 0.58–0.83 < 0.001 0.67 0.52–0.87 < 0.001 0.58 0.49–0.69 < 0.001 0.53 0.45–0.64 < 0.001
Income level: Near poor 0.79 0.70–0.89 < 0.001 0.67 0.57–0.80 < 0.001 0.69 0.62–0.77 < 0.001 0.63 0.56–0.71 < 0.001
Income level: Middle 0.93 0.84–1.03 0.16 0.84 0.73–0.97 0.01 0.81 0.75–0.88 < 0.001 0.77 0.70–0.85 < 0.001
Education level: Less than high school (Ref: College) 0.71 0.59–0.86 < 0.001 0.70 0.51–0.94 0.02 0.64 0.54–0.75 < 0.001 0.51 0.43–0.61 < 0.001
Education level: High school 0.81 0.74–0.89 < 0.001 0.82 0.72–0.94 0.01 0.83 0.77–0.90 < 0.001 0.73 0.67–0.81 < 0.001
Current smoker 0.51 0.44–0.59 < 0.001 0.72 0.58–0.91 0.01 0.74 0.65–0.84 < 0.001 0.65 0.57–0.75 < 0.001
Living in metro area 1.17 1.07–1.28 < 0.001 1.32 1.15–1.51 < 0.001 1.17 1.07–1.27 < 0.001 1.22 1.11–1.34 < 0.001
Female 0.91 0.84–0.99 0.02 0.99 0.91–1.08 0.86
Being married 1.36 1.24–1.49 < 0.001 1.18 1.03–1.35 0.02 1.21 1.11–1.31 < 0.001 1.27 1.16–1.39 < 0.001
Age 0.96 0.95–0.96 < 0.001 0.95 0.95–0.96 < 0.001 0.99 0.98–0.99 < 0.001 1.00 1.00–1.01 0.17
Race/Ethnicity: Hispanic (Ref: Non-Hispanic White) 1.05 0.83–1.34 0.68 1.19 0.81–1.74 0.38 0.92 0.74–1.14 0.43 0.84 0.67–1.05 0.12
Race/Ethnicity: Non-Hispanic Black 1.36 1.16–1.61 < 0.001 1.23 0.94–1.61 0.12 1.39 1.20–1.62 < 0.001 1.20 1.02–1.41 0.03
Race/Ethnicity: Non-Hispanic other race 1.02 0.82–1.28 0.85 1.14 0.83–1.57 0.43 0.82 0.67–1.01 0.06 0.75 0.60–0.95 0.01
Disabled 0.69 0.55–0.85 < 0.001 1.00 0.73–1.38 0.98 0.67 0.56–0.80 < 0.001 0.75 0.62–0.91 < 0.001
Self-reported health: Very good 1.10 0.99–1.23 0.08 0.88 0.77–1.02 0.08 1.17 1.06–1.29 < 0.001 1.15 1.03–1.28 0.02
Self-reported health: Good 1.04 0.93–1.17 0.48 0.88 0.75–1.02 0.09 1.19 1.08–1.32 < 0.001 1.13 1.01–1.27 0.03
Self-reported health: Fair 0.74 0.65–0.85 < 0.001 0.78 0.64–0.94 0.01 1.31 1.16–1.48 < 0.001 1.33 1.16–1.52 1.16
Self-reported health: Poor 0.55 0.45–0.67 < 0.001 0.76 0.58–0.99 0.04 1.50 1.26–1.78 < 0.001 1.50 1.24–1.82 < 0.001
Not proficient in English 1.23 0.84–1.79 0.29 1.55 0.84–2.86 0.16 0.71 0.51–1.00 0.05 0.64 0.45–0.90 0.01
Distrust Doctor 1.05 0.89–1.24 0.55 0.97 0.76–1.23 0.78 1.01 0.87–1.17 0.92 1.06 0.89–1.26 0.49
Bad Communication with Doctor 1.00 0.90–1.11 1.00 0.90 0.78–1.04 0.15 1.06 0.96–1.17 0.23 0.99 0.89–1.10 0.90
MA plan penetration 1.00 1.00–1.01 0.05 1.00 0.99–1.00 0.50 1.00 1.00–1.00 0.61 1.01 1.00–1.01 0.01
Physician Number/100,000 population 1.00 1.00–1.00 0.03 1.00 1.00–1.00 0.59 1.00 0.98–1.02 0.69 0.98 0.96–1.01 0.17
N 19,638 15,172 21,593 21,458