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Table 3 Analysis of doctors and others who have used telemedicine (TM)

From: Assessing core, e-learning, clinical and technology readiness to integrate telemedicine at public health facilities in Uganda: a health facility – based survey

Characteristics TM Users Non-users
Doctors (n = 74) Others (n = 93) Total (n = 167) TM aware non-users (n = 116) Unaware of TM (n = 123)
Core Readiness - Awareness of Telemedicine
TM used for Diagnosis 16 (34.0) 9 (9.7) 25 (15.3)a
Treatment 23 (31.1) 14 (15.2) 37 (22.7)a
Prevention 25 (33.8) 15 (16.1) 40 (24.5)b
e-Learning 30 (40.5) 40 (43.0) 70 (42.9)
Knowledge sharing 21 (28.4) 31 (33.3) 52 (31.9)
e-consultation 47 (63.5) 46 (49.5) 93 (57.1)
e-prescription 60 (81.1) 1 (1.1) 61 (37.4)c
Impressed with TM 74 (100) 81 (87.1) 155 (95.1)c
Core Readiness - Integrating Telemedicine
 TM reduces referrals 65 (87.8) 73 (78.5) 138 (84.7) 89 (76.7) 30 (24.4)c
 TM reduces hospital visits 65 (87.8) 60 (64.5) 125 (76.7)c 99 (85.3)a 52 (42.3)c
 Use TM over traditional methods 67 (90.5) 69 (74.2) 136 (83.4)b 102 (87.9) 67 (54.5)c
Required before TM Licensing 43 (58.1) 64 (68.8) 107 (65.6) 85 (73.3) 48 (39.0)c
Remuneration 33 (44.6) 52 (55.9) 85 (52.1) 61 (52.6) 20 (16.3)c
Policy 74 (100) 80 (86.0) 154 (94.5)c 97 (83.6)a 58 (47.2)c
Training 68 (91.9) 79 (84.9) 147 (90.2) 63 (54.3)c 66 (53.7)c
Ethical Guideline 69 (93.2) 61 (65.6) 130 (79.8)c 66 (56.9)c 45 (36.6)c
TM solves HWs crisis 70 (94.6) 74 (79.6) 144 (88.3)b 106 (91.4) 81 (65.9)c
Core Readiness - Comfort with Telemedicine
 TM is cost effective 59 (79.7) 93 (100) 152 (93.3)c 98 (84.5) 85 (69.1)c
 Worth investing in TM infrastructure? 73 (98.6) 76 (81.7) 149 (91.4)c 83 (71.6)c 81 (65.9)c
 TM is effective for emergencies 66 (89.2) 86 (92.5) 152 (93.3) 111 (95.7) 96 (78.0)b
Core Readiness – Process Workflow
 TM affects normal process workflow 5 (6.8) 23 (24.7) 28 (17.2)b 5 (4.3)c 24 (19.5)
 TM would alter work practices 24 (32.4) 47 (50.5) 71 (43.6)a 54 (46.6) 44 (35.8)
 TM would change referral process 63 (85.1) 66 (71.0) 129 (79.1)a 113 (97.4)c 53 (43.1)c
Learning Readiness – Enhancing Provider Skill
How do you access Continuing Medical Education? Conference 71 (95.9) 65 (69.9) 136 (83.4)c 91 (78.4) 70 (60.3)c
Internet 70 (94.6) 56 (60.2) 126 (77.3)c 83 (71.6) 45 (38.8)c
Workshop 74 (100) 63 (67.7) 137 (84.0)c 93 (80.2) 86 (74.1)a
Attend course 26 (35.1) 22 (23.7) 48 (29.4) 42 (36.2) 60 (51.7)c
Consult colleagues 8 (10.8) 11 (11.8) 19 (11.7) 9 (7.8) 17 (14.7)
Could TM enhance e-learning? 62 (83.8) 62 (66.7) 124 (76.1)a 114 (98.3)c 113 (91.9)c
Are HW ready to adopt e-learning? 68 (91.9) 81 (87.1) 149 (91.4) 107 (92.2) 113 (91.9)
Would TM use bridge skills gap? 49 (66.2) 78 (83.9) 127 (77.9)b 104 (89.7)b 119 (96.7)c
Clinical Readiness - Factors
 Use of TM for clinical gaps 67 (90.5) 84 (90.3) 151 (92.6) 109 (94.0) 104 (84.6)
 Agree with treatment outcome 70 (94.6) 85 (91.4) 155 (95.1) 111 (95.7) 99 (80.5)b
 TM will improve clinical outcome 70 (94.6) 85 (91.4) 156 (95.1) 100 (86.2) 100 (81.3)b
Overall Readiness
 HW ready to integrate TM 65 (87.8) 60 (64.5) 125 (76.7)b 68 (58.6)b 64 (52.0)c
  1. a ≤ 0.05, b ≤ 0.01, c ≤ 0.001. Statistical comparison between doctors and others who use telemedicine is shown in the Telemedicine Total column, between users and those aware of telemedicine but not using it in Telemedicine Aware non-users column, and between telemedicine users and telemedicine naïve respondents in the Unaware of TM column