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Table 2 Models of Medicare spending 1-year following index discharge (N = 4684)

From: One-year costs of medical admissions with and without a 30-day readmission and enhanced risk adjustment

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Readmission 17726*** 17670*** 18163*** 16516***
Female 524 894   413
Age
 65–74 Reference Reference   Reference
 75–84 − 872 −520   799
 85+ − 8009*** − 7460**   − 4510^
Race
 Whites Reference Reference   Reference
 Blacks 10750*** 10079***   8768**
 Hispanics 6619^ 5677   6288
 Others − 2463 − 3586   − 2035
Dual (Medicare-Medicaid) coverage − 1403 − 1836   − 2188
Ever Smoker 2703^ 2687^   2689^
Overweight+Obese − 2252 − 2432   − 1194
Education
 < 12 years of education   Reference   Reference
 High school   − 1433   − 1534
 Bachelor and above   − 4562^   − 4630^
Living Type
 Community-Alone   Reference   Reference
 Community-Two people   1143   1411
 Community-More than two   5162   4767
 Facility   1228   2200
Income
 Poorest quartile   Reference   Reference
 Second quartile   − 2059   − 2083
 Top two quartiles   149   332
Marital Status
 Married   Reference   Reference
 Widowed   − 824   38
 Divorced/separated   559   1697
 Never married   − 5076   − 3735
Previous year utilization
 Hospitalizations days    − 441^ − 343
 Number of hospitalizations    2113 712
 Overall Medicare spending ($)    0.255*** 0.198***
Constant 6054 7821 29190*** 8961
R-squared 0.13 0.14 0.11 0.17
  1. Notes. Other covariates included in models 1, 2, and 4 were Charlson comorbidity index conditions, HRR-level Medicare spending (quintiles), index admission condition, census region (N = 9) and index year (2001–2010). All spending are in dollars
  2. ^ p < 0.10, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001