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Table 1 Overview over the two cases: national cardiac rehabilitation registries in the UK and Denmark

From: “Struggling with practices” – a qualitative study of factors influencing the implementation of clinical quality registries for cardiac rehabilitation in England and Denmark

  The National Audit for Cardiac Rehabilitation (NACR) The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD)
Country The United Kingdom Denmark
No. of inhabitants 65.6 million 5.7 million
Patient groups Cardiovascular Disease Coronary Heart Disease
Registry coverage National (England, Wales, Northern Ireland) National
Overall aim Monitor and improve quality of outpatient* CR in the UK in order to improve the outcome for patients recovering from cardiac events Monitor and improve quality of outpatient* CR in Denmark in order to improve the outcome for patients recovering from cardiac events
First launched 2005 2013 (fully operating 2015)
First annual report 2007 2016
Participation Voluntary Mandated by Danish law
No. of participating sites 224, hospitals and community 35 hospitals
No. of patient-level entries (annually) Approx. 101,000 Approx. 6000
Governed by Steering committee Steering committee
Daily management Administrative unit at the University of York.
Team equivalent to 3,5 full time employees consists of a project lead, manager, training officer, data analyst and a secretary
The Danish Clinical Registries (http://www.rkkp.dk)
The team consists of a manager, quality manager, epidemiologist, and a data manager, all of them with responsibility for DHRD as well as a number of other CQRs
Technical management In cooperation with NHS Digital In cooperation with external provider
Financing (except data collection) The British Heart Foundation Government (the Danish regions)
Financing of data collection and entry Financed locally by each participating trust Financed locally by each participating department
Data collection method Electronic, web based
Patient questionnaires are paper-based
Electronic, web based
Patient questionnaires are paper-based
Data collected and entered by Clinicians (mainly) or dedicated data administrators Clinicians (mainly) or secretaries
User support opportunities Training sessions, telephone, e-mail, written users manual Telephone, e-mail, written users manual
Data linkage No Yes (The Danish Civil Registration System; the Danish National Patient Register; the Danish National Database on Reimbursed Prescriptions)
Patient consent Opt out model Not needed according to Danish law
Programme level data Collected partly via database, partly via separate questionnaire (annually) Collected via separate questionnaire (every third year)
Patient level data Initiating event, treatment type, lifestyle, medication, demographics, pre-CR clinical outcomes and post-CR clinical outcomes, patient-reported measures Initiating event, risk factor control, lifestyle, medication, demographics, pre-CR clinical outcomes and post-CR clinical outcomes, patient-reported measures
Feedback Annual report; participating sites can get their own data via the NACR/NHS Digital database link (with login); programme level data available on general NACR webpage; specific requests on demand Annual report; participating sites can get their own data (monthly updated) through regional clinical management systems (with login); specific requests on demand
More information available www.cardiacrehabilitation.org.uk/nacr/ [27] Zwisler et al. Clin Epid 2016:8;451–456 [26]
  1. *Outpatient CR = In Denmark Phase II, in the UK core/Phase III: the initial 8–12 weeks of outpatient CR performed at hospitals and community level