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Table 1 Characteristics of participants (randomised at baseline, n = 359)

From: Brief telephone counselling is effective for caregivers who do not experience any major life events – caregiver-related outcomes of the German day-care study

Characteristics Intervention group Control group Total Test for group differences
(n = 205) (n = 154) (n = 359) χ 2 T/U p
Caregiver (CG)
 Age, M (SD) 59.5 (11.4) 59.3 (11.2) 59.5 (11.3)   −0.17a .868
 Women, no. (%) 151 (73.7) 118 (76.6) 269 (74.9) 0.41   .521
 Educational attainment (yrs.), M (SD)b 10.8 (2.9) 10.8 (2.8) 10.8 (2.8)   −0.23 .815
 Occupation: Employed, no. (%) 111(54.1) 83 (53.9) 194 (54.0) 0.002   .962
 Marital status, no. (%)     2.67   .263
  Married/long-term relationship 157 (76.6) 125 (81.2) 282 (78.6)    
  Widowed/divorced 26 (12.7) 20 (13.0) 46 (12.8)    
  Single 22 (10.7) 9 (5.8) 31 (8.6)    
 Relationship to PCI, no. (%)     1.00   .606
  spouse 52 (25.4) 43 (27.9) 95 (26.5)    
  son/daughter (in-law) 139 (67.8) 104 (67.5) 243 (67.7)    
  other 14 (6.8) 7 (4.5) 21 (5.8)    
 Caregiver burden (BSFC-s), M (SD) 11.9 (8.2) 13.2 (7.6) 12.4 (8.0)   1.55 .122
 Depressiveness (WHO-5), M (SD) 12.0 (6.2) 12.0 (5.6) 12.0 (6.0)   0.02 .981
 Benefits (BIZA-D), M (SD) 12.6 (4.8) 12.6 (5.4) 12.6 (5.0)   −0.13 .898
 Health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5 L),M (SD) 0.86 (0.2) 0.82 (0.2) 0.84 (0.2)   −1.67 .095
Person with cognitive impairment (PCI)
 Age, M (SD) 81.5 (7.5) 81.1 (7.5) 81.3 (7.5)   −0.61 .545
 Women, no. (%) 126 (61.5) 94 (61.0) 220 (61.3) 0.01   .935
 Educational attainment (yrs.), M (SD) 9.8 (2.5) 9.6 (2.1) 9.7 (2.3)   −0.56 .574
 Cognitive impairment (MMSE), M (SD)c 19.7 (4.8) 19.3 (4.8) 19.5 (4.8)   −0.92 .357
  mild cognitive impairment 25.8 (1.5) 26.3 (1.4) 26.0 (1.5)   1.27 .207
  mild dementia 20.6 (1.7) 20.5 (1.6) 20.6 (1.6)   −0.31 .757
  moderate dementia 14.4 (2.4) 14.6 (2.2) 14.5 (2.3)   0.28 .778
 Activities of daily living (ETAM), M (SD) 17.8 (7.0) 17.1 (7.5) 17.5 (7.2)   −0.89 .373
 Social behaviour (NOSGER), M (SD) 15.5 (4.2) 15.6 (4.6) 15.5 (4.3)   0.11 .912
 Neuropsychiatric symptomatology (NPI), M (SD) 5.2 (2.69) 5.4 (2.7) 5.3 (2.7)   0.60 .549
 Care level, no. (%)d      −0.19e .852
  None 8 (3.9) 12 (7.8) 20 (5.6)    
  0 25 (12.2) 15 (9.7) 40 (11.1)    
  1 109 (53.2) 75 (48.7) 184 (51.3)    
  2 61 (29.8) 50 (32.5) 111 (30.9)    
  3 2 (1.0) 2 (1.3) 4 (1.1)    
 Use of antidementia med., no. (%)f 61 (29.8) 40 (26.0) 101 (28.1) 0.62   .430
Care situation
 Main caregiver, no. (%) 178 (86.8) 139 (90.3) 317 (88.3) 1.002   .317
 Sole informal caregiver, no. (%) 110 (53.7) 83 (53.9) 193 (53.8) 0.002   .964
 Living together, no. (%) 86 (42.0) 68 (44.2) 154 (42.9) 0.174   .676
 Duration of informal care (mo.), M (SD) 60.3 (49.1) 59.0 (52.2) 59.7(50.4)   −0.24 .814
 Frequency day-care use, M (SD)g 2.0 (1.2) 1.9 (1.1) 1.9 (1.2)   −0.17 .866
 Informal care time per day (h), M (SD)h 3.0 (2.2) 3.3 (2.0) 3.1 (2.1)   1.09 .277
 No. of additional Formal Care Support, M (SD)i 1.6 (1.3) 1.6 (1.3) 1.6 (1.3)   0.26 .799
  1. M mean, SD standard deviation, BIZA-D Berlin Inventory of caregiver burden - dementia patients (score) - subscale Benefits, BSFC-s Burden Scale for Family Caregivers short (score), EQ-5D-5 L EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire, ETAM Erlangen test of activities of daily living in persons with mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment (score), MMSE Mini-Mental Status Examination (score), NOSGER Nurses’ Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients, NPI Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire WHO-5 Well-Being Index score
  2. at-tests are reported as metric variables, u-tests were also computed but not reported because they failed to indicate a different level of significance
  3. bmin. 7 yrs. (no compulsory school leaving certificate) - max. 18 yrs. (university degree)
  4. cmild cognitive impairment: MMSE 30–24 & Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) 0–22, mild dementia: MMSE 23–18, moderate dementia: MMSE 17–10
  5. dthe extent to which nursing care was needed according to the health insurance: none (no needs), 1 (moderate needs), 2 (high needs), and 3 (very high needs)
  6. eu-test
  7. fintake of memantine or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
  8. gaverage frequency per week in the first month
  9. hhours of average informal care per day adjusted for day care attendance at baseline
  10. isum of formal care, support, in addition to day-care centre, maximum: 9 (caregiver skill training, counselling service for caregivers, support group for caregivers, domestic care service, care group, meals on wheels, respite care, outpatient care service, home-help service)