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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted outcomes for the pre-awareness and post-awareness groups

From: Quality improvement strategies for organizational change: a multiphase observational study to increase insight into nonparticipating organizations

  Pre-awareness
(n = 150)
Post-awareness
(n = 150)
Mean difference (95% CI) p value
Adherence to key items (%)     
  Unadjusted mean ± SD 46.1 ± 15.5 53.3 ± 13.3 7.3 (4.0 to 10.5) < 0.001a
  Adjusted EMM (95% CI) 54.3 (41.5 to 67.1) 64.0 (51.2 to 76.9) 9.7 (6.9 to 12.5) < 0.001b
Time to recovery (days)     
  Unadjusted mean ± SD 4.8 ± 2.4 4.9 ± 2.2 0.0 (−0.5 to 0.6) 0.892a
  Adjusted EMM (95% CI) 4.9 (2.7 to 7.0) 4.6 (2.5 to 6.8) -0.2 (−0.7 to 0.2) 0.319b
Length of hospital stay (days)     
  Unadjusted mean ± SD 6.4 ± 4.2 6.5 ± 4.1 0.1 (−0.9 to 1.0) 0.874a
  Adjusted EMM (95% CI) 6.6 (2.6 to 10.7) 6.3 (2.2 to 10.3) −0.4 (−1.3 to 0.5) 0.419b
  1. Group differences were tested using the independent samples t-test a, or multivariable linear regression models b. Linear models were adjusted for age, ASA classification, diagnosis and type of surgery, histological subtype, surgical approach, duration of surgery, and type of additional surgical procedure. Analysis of the log-transformed data on time to recovery and length of hospital stay showed similar results. CI = confidence interval, EMM = estimated marginal mean, n = number of patients, SD = standard deviation