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Table 3 Presenteeism individual exposures and outcomes measures identified in reviewed publications

From: Presenteeism exposures and outcomes amongst hospital doctors and nurses: a systematic review

Organizational Exposures/ outcomes measured Adopted scale origins Publications Reliability (Cronbach’s α)
Work-related Characteristics
 Age Self-derived item Letvak 2013
Martinez 2012
Sendén 2013
d’Errico 2013
Heponiemi 2013
Thun 2014
Aysun 2017
 Hospital/ Department Self-derived item d’Errico 2013
 Employer Self-derived item Heponiemi 2013
 Being in academia Self-derived item Sendén 2013
 Marriage status Self-derived item d’Errico 2013
 Country Self-derived item Sendén 2013
 Ethnicity Self-derived item Warren 2011
 Job title Self-derived item d’Errico 2013
Aysun 2017
Warren 2011
 Seniority/ work experience Self-derived item Martinez 2012
d’Errico 2013
 Rank Self-derived item Skela-Savič 2017
 Shift work Self-derived item Rantanen 2011
 Gender Self-derived item Martinez 2012
Sendén 2013
Thun 2014
Senden 2016
Aysun 2017
Demerouti 2009
 Sick leave policy Self-derived item Sendén 2013
 Type of employment (perm) Self-derived item d’Errico 2013
 Work schedule (full-time) Self-derived item d’Errico 2013
 Sick leave Self-derived item Sendén 2013
Dellve 2011
 Hours worked Self-derived items Martinez 2012
Individual health
 Acute/chronic disease Self-derived items Rantanen 2011
WHO-HPQ Warren 2011
 Overall health symptoms Self-derived items Martinez 2012
 Mental symptoms/ conditions (depression/ anxiety) Wellness-at-Work Survey Warren 2011
Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) Letvak 2012 0.89
Self-derived item Martinez 2012
Avallone 2005 d’Errico 2013
 Lower back pain interference with daily activities Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire Skela-Savič 2017
Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire d’Errico 2013 0.72
 Medication/ vaccination Self-derived items LaVela 2007
 Dutifulness Self-derived item Dellve 2011
 Good general health Johansson and Lundberg 1996 Demerouti 2009
Eriksson 2004 Dellve 2011
Self-derived items Martinez 2012
Short-form health survey derived item Aysun 2017
 Self-diagnosis and treatment Self-derived items Sendén 2013
 Need for healthcare provision/ pharmacotherapy Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire Skela-Savič 2017
Wellness-at-Work Survey Warren 2011
 Sleep problems Wellness-at-Work Survey Warren 2011
 Decreased physical activities Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire Skela-Savič 2017
 Poor Work Ability Work Ability Index Dellve 2011
 Decreased Performance Hagberg 2002 Dellve 2011
Personal factors
 Coping strategies Occupational Coping scale (ECO) Umann 2014 control: 0.77–0.81
 Social support at home Self-derived item Dellve 2011
 Work-family/ Family work conflict Self-derived item Dellve 2011
Netemeyer 1996 d’Errico 2013 0.77–0.86
Derived from QPS Nordic Senden 2016
Self-derived items and van Exel 2004 Boumans 2014