Skip to main content

Table 3 Relevant factors influencing inconsistency in the self-report on illness, under-reports of illness (under-estimation), and over-reporting of illness (over-estimation)

From: National health data linkage and the agreement between self-reports and medical records for middle-aged and older adults in Taiwan

  Inconsistency Under-reports of illness Overly reports of illness
Diabetes
N = 3601
Hypertension
N = 3601
Diabetes
N = 724
Hypertension
N = 1683
Diabetes
N = 2877
Hypertension
N = 1918
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Female (ref: Male) 0.86 (0.63–1.17) 0.75 (0.61–0.93)** 1.32 (0.81–2.14) 0.86 (0.61–1.22) 0.49 (0.29–0.82)** 0.59 (0.41–0.85)**
Age 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 1.02 (1.01–1.04)** 1.05 (1.02–1.08)* 1.03 (1.01–1.05)** 0.95 (0.93–0.98)** 1.00 (0.98–1.02)
Ethnic groups (ref: Mainlander)
 Islander 1.14 (0.69–1.90) 1.27 (0.89–1.81) 0.69 (0.32–1.49) 0.77 (0.45–1.30) 1.77 (0.74–4.23) 2.24 (1.1–4.59)*
 Hakka people (including other people) 1.04 (0.58–1.87) 1.11 (0.74–1.66) 1.05 (0.44–2.55) 0.63 (0.34–1.17) 1.05 (0.37–2.95) 2.03 (0.94–4.40)
Level of education (ref: Junior high or higher)
 No education 0.67 (0.40–1.12) 1.02 (0.73–1.43) 0.46 (0.20–1.08) 0.87 (0.51–1.50) 1.44 (0.67–3.07) 1.67 (0.91–3.05)
 Primary school 0.87 (0.62–1.21) 1.24 (0.98–1.55) 0.81 (0.49–1.36) 1.31 (0.90–1.91) 0.85 (0.49–1.46) 1.33 (0.91–1.94)
Living alone 1.62 (1.04–2.52)* 0.68 (0.47–0.98)* 2.00 (0.99–4.03) 0.67 (0.39–1.15) 1.57 (0.75–3.28) 0.88 (0.46–1.68)
Self-reported health conditions 0.88 (0.74–1.04) 1.06 (0.94–1.19) 0.73 (0.55–0.97)* 0.82 (0.68–0.99)* 0.90 (0.68–1.18) 1.61 (1.31–1.98)***
Comorbidities 1.58 (1.40–1.79)*** 1.27 (1.16–1.38)*** 0.29 (0.21–0.38)*** 0.25 (0.20–0.31)*** 3.62 (2.9–4.52)*** 7.67 (6.08–9.68)***
Cognition (SPMSQ) 0.94 (0.84–1.04) 0.95 (0.89–1.03) 1.05 (0.87–1.27) 0.91 (0.81–1.01) 0.87 (0.75–1.02) 1.01 (0.87–1.16)
Depression (CESD) 0.99 (0.96–1.01) 1.02 (1.00–1.04) 0.99 (0.94–1.03) 1.02 (0.99–1.05) 0.98 (0.94–1.02) 1.01 (0.98–1.05)
  1. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001