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Table 2 Difference-in-differences regressions for ED visits

From: Early evidence from South Carolina’s Medicare-Medicaid dual-eligible financial alignment initiative: an observational study to understand who enrolled, and whether the program improved health?

Variables Avoidable ED visits ED charges
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Post 0.00844*** (0.000890) 0.00837*** (0.000889) 322.1*** (10.17) 316.7*** (9.999)
Treatment −0.00618*** (0.00196) − 0.00699*** (0.00199) −10.63 (17.65) −5.899 (17.40)
Post X treatment 0.00673 (0.00465) 0.00671 (0.00466) 16.63 (39.78) 56.39 (38.40)
Age −6.38e-05** (2.62e-05) −7.75e-05*** (2.58e-05) −12.76*** (0.378) −13.07*** (0.379)
Female − 0.00627*** (0.000892) − 0.00625*** (0.000903) −21.70** (9.524) −27.76*** (9.408)
Urban −0.000924 (0.000774) 0.00255* (0.00147) 246.8*** (8.714) 98.32*** (20.29)
Black 0.0138*** (0.000809) 0.0113*** (0.000818) 107.8*** (9.902) 39.95*** (9.582)
Other race 0.0163*** (0.00192) 0.0147*** (0.00183) 103.7*** (13.67) 50.69*** (13.61)
CHARLSON INDEX −0.00210*** (0.000705) − 0.00215*** (0.000708) 102.5*** (7.442) 91.49*** (7.341)
Congestive Heart Failure 0.0283*** (0.00175) 0.0282*** (0.00175) −50.31*** (17.13) −20.03 (16.75)
Cardiac Arrhythmias 0.0120*** (0.00147) 0.0118*** (0.00143) 421.6*** (14.81) 410.3*** (14.50)
Valvular Disease 0.00437*** (0.00156) 0.00450*** (0.00155) 97.62*** (19.80) 78.02*** (19.34)
Pulmonary Circulation Disorders −0.00793*** (0.00235) −0.00827*** (0.00236) 338.5*** (36.36) 331.8*** (35.92)
Peripheral Vascular Disorders −0.00373** (0.00173) −0.00360** (0.00175) −109.5*** (18.44) −70.24*** (18.12)
Hypertension, Uncomplicated −0.00550*** (0.000833) −0.00543*** (0.000854) 81.86*** (9.713) 67.28*** (9.541)
Paralysis −0.00320 (0.00252) − 0.00349 (0.00253) − 217.1*** (30.07) −208.2*** (29.61)
Other Neurological Disorders −0.0118*** (0.00113) −0.0118*** (0.00112) 264.9*** (15.24) 253.1*** (14.95)
Chronic Pulmonary Disease 0.0732*** (0.00128) 0.0735*** (0.00129) 117.0*** (12.97) 127.7*** (12.75)
Diabetes, Uncomplicated 0.00198 (0.00128) 0.00219* (0.00127) −97.99*** (12.32) −72.09*** (12.06)
Diabetes, Complicated 0.00225 (0.00177) 0.00186 (0.00178) 67.25*** (19.73) 55.87*** (19.39)
Hypothyroidism −0.00399*** (0.00111) − 0.00364*** (0.00111) −14.52 (13.64) 5.217 (13.41)
Renal Failure −0.00274 (0.00211) − 0.00240 (0.00212) −253.4*** (23.85) −199.1*** (23.48)
Liver Disease −0.00112 (0.00198) −0.000870 (0.00200) −4.929 (25.74) 52.61** (25.23)
Peptic Ulcer Disease Excluding Bleeding 3.80e-05 (0.00301) 0.000122 (0.00301) 679.1*** (62.99) 683.4*** (62.44)
AIDS/HIV 0.00824 (0.00530) 0.00789 (0.00534) − 480.7*** (62.79) − 461.0*** (61.70)
Lymphoma −0.0122*** (0.00349) −0.0126*** (0.00352) −189.0*** (54.04) − 154.1*** (53.11)
Metastatic Cancer 0.00144 (0.00485) 0.00159 (0.00489) − 509.1*** (59.03) − 436.3*** (58.17)
Solid Tumor Without Metastasis −0.00705*** (0.00211) − 0.00725*** (0.00212) − 241.3*** (23.76) −232.8*** (23.46)
Rheumatoid Arthritis/Collagen Vascular −0.00850*** (0.00154) −0.00859*** (0.00154) 92.71*** (23.76) 112.1*** (23.34)
Coagulopathy −0.00653*** (0.00209) −0.00644*** (0.00207) 122.6*** (32.15) 113.1*** (31.68)
Obesity 0.0105*** (0.00127) 0.0107*** (0.00127) 107.9*** (15.47) 110.5*** (15.17)
Weight Loss −0.00629*** (0.00149) −0.00661*** (0.00150) −63.30*** (20.03) −59.96*** (19.78)
Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders 0.00810*** (0.00127) 0.00840*** (0.00127) 562.3*** (14.28) 549.7*** (14.06)
Blood Loss Anemia − 0.00294 (0.00354) − 0.00289 (0.00354) 13.07 (59.89) 0.0154 (58.85)
Deficiency Anemia 0.00108 (0.00166) 0.000522 (0.00166) 171.1*** (25.74) 181.0*** (25.37)
Alcohol Abuse −0.000863 (0.00238) −0.00112 (0.00240) 65.46** (28.96) 56.10** (28.59)
Drug Abuse 0.0121*** (0.00285) 0.0124*** (0.00285) 1044*** (33.54) 1064*** (33.19)
Psychoses −0.00443* (0.00229) − 0.00456** (0.00229) 232.5*** (19.44) 223.4*** (19.29)
Depression −0.00645*** (0.00107) −0.00605*** (0.00107) 241.2*** (12.74) 259.4*** (12.54)
Hypertension, Complicated −0.00166 (0.00166) − 0.00220 (0.00166) 8.475 (19.42) −39.21** (19.36)
Constant 0.0119*** (0.00183) 0.0125*** (0.00424) 1897*** (20.67) 1037*** (30.23)
Observations 447,867 447,851 447,867 447,851
R-squared 0.022 0.023 0.061 0.092
  1. Robust standard errors in parentheses
  2. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1