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Table 3 Factors associated with treatment delay among MDR-TB patients (n = 210)

From: Delay in diagnosis and treatment among adult multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Yangon Regional Tuberculosis Center, Myanmar: a cross-sectional study

Variables Treatment Delay n (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
<  13 Days ≥ 13 Days p value COR (95% CI) p value AOR (95% CI)
Demographic factors
 Sex
 Male 74 (56.5) 57 (43.5)   1.00   1.00
  Female 29 (36.7) 50 (63.3) 0.006 2.24 (1.26–3.97) 0.19 1.97 (0.70–5.56)
 Age
   ≤ 30 years 48 (77.4) 14 (22.6)   1.00   1.00
  31–50 years 43 (51.2) 41 (48.8) 0.002 3.27 (1.57–6.81) 0.009 4.50 (1.47–13.97)
   > 50 years 12 (18.8) 52 (81.3) 0.001 14.86 (6.26–35.29) 0.001 9.40 (2.55–34.83)
 Family member
   ≥ 4 71 (58.2) 51 (41.8)   1.00   1.00
   < 4 32 (36.4) 56 (63.6) 0.002 2.44 (1.39–4.28) 0.57 2.60 (0.97–6.98)
Socio economic factors
 Education a
  Middle school education level and above 82 (57.7) 60 (42.3)   1.00   1.00
  Below middle school education level 21 (30.9) 47 (69.1) 0.001 3.06 (1.66–5.65) 0.54 1.37 (0.49–3.78)
 Occupation b
  Employed (permanent salary) 56 (71.8) 22 (28.2)   1.00   1.00
  Employed (non-permanent salary) 35 (41.7) 49 (58.3) 0.001 3.56 (1.85–6.87) 0.35 1.53 (0.59–4.26)
  Unemployed 12 (25.0) 36 (75.0) 0.001 7.64 (3.37–17.31) 0.10 3.25 (0.79–13.39)
 Family income
  > 400,000 Kyats 15 (51.7) 14 (48.3)   1.00   1.00
  200,001–400,000 Kyats 53 (42.4) 72 (57.6) 0.36 1.46 (0.65–3.27) 0.95 1.04 (0.31–3.50)
  ≤ 200,000 Kyats 35 (62.5) 21 (37.5) 0.34 0.64 (0.26–1.59) 0.05 0.23 (0.51–1.00)
Disease factors
 Types of MDRTB patient
  New 0 (0.0) 26 (100.0)   
  Previously Treated 103 (56.0) 81 (44.0)   
 Contact with MDR-TB patient
  No 79 (56.8) 60 (43.2)   1.00   1.00
  Yes 24 (33.8) 47 (66.2) 0.002 2.58 (1.42–4.68) 0.01 3.16 (1.29–7.69)
 Diabetes Mellitus
  Absent 85 (50.0) 85 (50.0)   1.00   1.00
  Present 18 (45.0) 22 (55.0) 0.57 1.22 (0.61–2.44) 0.46 0.67 (0.23–1.97)
 HIV status
  Absent 94 (49.7) 95 (50.3)   1.00   1.00
  Present 9 (42.9) 12 (57.1) 0.55 1.32 (0.53–3.28) 0.38 1.76 (0.50–6.17)
 First visit medical providerc
  Self-initiative 13 (72.2) 5 (27.8)   1.00   1.00
  General Practitioner 76 (44.7) 94 (55.3) 0.03 3.22 (1.09–9.42) 0.84 1.17 (0.26–5.18)
  Hospitals and NGOs 14 (63.6) 8 (36.4) 0.56 1.49 (0.39–5.72) 0.56 0.54 (0.07–4.25)
Geographic accessibility
 Distance (km)
   ≤ 10 km 26 (89.7) 3 (10.3)   1.00   1.00
  11–20 km 59 (65.6) 31 (34.4) 0.02 4.55 (1.28–16.24) 0.06 5.11 (0.95–27.44)
   > 20 km 18 (19.8) 73 (80.2) 0.001 35.15 (9.56–129.18) 0.01 14.33 (1.91–107.64)
 Duration or time spent from residence to TB Center (min)
   ≤ 60 min 70 (75.3) 23 (24.7)   1.00   1.00
  61–120 min 23 (34.8) 43 (65.2) 0.001 5.69 (2.85–11.36) 0.14 2.33 (0.77–7.10)
   > 120 min 10 (19.6) 41 (80.4) 0.001 12.48 (5.41–28.80) 0.29 2.38 (0.47–12.01)
Consciousness on MDR-TB
 Knowledge Level     
  High Knowledge 79 (61.7) 49 (38.3)   1.00   1.00
  Low Knowledge 24 (29.3) 58 (70.7) 0.001 3.89 (2.15–7.06) 0.76 1.17 (0.43–3.16)
 Awareness Level
  Good Awareness 80 (61.5) 50 (38.5)   1.00   1.00
  Poor Awareness 23 (28.8) 57 (71.3) 0.001 3.97 (2.18–7.22) 0.006 4.62 (1.56–13.67)
Psychological factor
 Stigma Level
  Low Stigma 70 (58.8) 49 (41.2)   1.00   1.00
  High Stigma 33 (36.3) 58 (63.7) 0.001 2.51 (1.43–4.41) 0.89 0.93 (0.33–2.66)
  1. aEducation, bOccupation, cFirst visit medical provider – same as Table 2