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Table 1 Characteristic of MDR-TB patients (n = 210)

From: Delay in diagnosis and treatment among adult multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients in Yangon Regional Tuberculosis Center, Myanmar: a cross-sectional study

Variables Frequency (%)
Demographic factors
 Gender
  Male 131 (62.4)
  Female 79 (37.6)
 Age
  ≤ 30 years 62 (29.5)
  31–50 years 84 (40.0)
  > 50 years 64 (30.5)
  Mean ± SD (41 ± 15.02), Minimum 18, Maximum 78  
 Family member  
  < 4 88 (41.9)
  ≥ 4 122 (58.1)
  Mean ± SD (4 ± 2.15), Minimum 1, Maximum 12  
Socio economic factors  
 Education
  Illiterate 4 (1.9)
  Read and Write 19 (9.0)
  Primary school education level 45 (21.4)
  Middle school education level 49 (23.3)
  High school education level 62 (29.5)
  Graduate and above 31 (14.8)
 Occupation
  Dependent 48 (22.9)
  Manual or unskilled laborer 43 (20.5)
  Owned business or self-employee 41 (19.5)
  Government staff 34 (16.2)
  Private employee 44 (21.0)
 Family income
  ≤ 200,000 Kyats 56 (26.7)
  200,001–400,000 Kyats 125 (59.5)
  > 400,000 Kyats 29 (13.8)
  Mean ± SD (307,524.81 ± 121,484.29), Minimum 80,000 Kyats, Maximum 1,000,000 Kyats
Disease factors
 Type of patients
  New Cases 26 (12.4)
  Previously Treated Cases 184 (87.6)
   Relapse 88 (41.9)
   Category I Failure 74 (35.2)
   Category II Failure 15 (7.1)
   Defaulted 7 (3.3)
 Contact with MDR-TB patient
  Present 71 (33.8)
  Absent 139 (66.2)
 Diabetes Mellitus  
  Present 40 (19.0)
  Absent 170 (81.0)
 HIV status
  Present 21 (10.0)
  Absent 189 (90.0)
 First visited medical provider  
  Self-initiative 18 (8.6)
  General Practitioner 170 (81.0)
  Private Hospital 9 (4.3)
  Government Hospital 8 (3.8)
  NGOs (PSI) 5 (2.4)
Geographic accessibility
 Residence
  Rural 50 (23.8)
  Urban 160 (76.2)
 Distance (km)
  > 20 km 91 (43.3)
  11–20 km 90 (42.9)
  ≤ 10 km 29 (13.8)
  Mean ± SD (18.12 ± 6.61), Minimum 8.68, Maximum 31
 Duration or time spent from residence to TB Center (min)
  > 120 min 51 (24.3)
  61–120 min 66 (31.4)
  ≤ 60 min 93 (44.3)
  Mean ± SD (90.10 ± 49.99), Minimum 30, Maximum 200
Consciousness on MDR-TB
 Knowledge Level
  Low Knowledge (< Mean sore) 82 (39.0)
  High Knowledge (≥ Mean score) 128 (61.0)
  Mean ± SD (26.27 ± 2.33), Minimum 19, Maximum 33
 Awareness Level
  Poor Awareness (< Mean sore) 80 (38.1)
  Good Awareness (≥ Mean score) 130 (61.9)
  Mean ± SD (56.27 ± 3.12), Minimum 48, Maximum 65
Psychological factor
 Stigma Level
  Low Stigma (< Mean sore) 119 (56.7)
  High Stigma (≥ Mean score) 91 (43.3)
  Mean ± SD (10.07 ± 4.71), Minimum 3, Maximum 22