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Table 1 Household characteristics in Zhejiang and Qinghai province, China

From: A comparative study of catastrophic health expenditure in Zhejiang and Qinghai province, China

Household characteristics Households Households with CHE
Total (n = 1598) Zhejiang (n = 995) Qinghai (n = 603) P-value Total (n = 280) Zhejiang (n = 96) Qinghai (n = 184) P-value
Household with CHE, n (%) 280 (17.5) 96 (9.6) 184 (30.5) < 0.000     
Household income per year, mean (SE) (US $) 17,430.06
(459.00)
21,539.81
(539.19)
10,648.63
(752.56)
< 0.000 6507.53
(528.52)
9462.44
(1187.59)
4965.83
(477.67)
0.001
Household consumption expenditure per year, mean (SE) (US $) 10,934.17
(244.05)
12,638.74
(283.19)
8121.48
(423.20)
< 0.000 8252.97
(772.65)
10,073.46
(1168.00)
7303.15
(1000.57)
0.021
Household health expenditure per year, mean (SE) (US $) 2204.33
(121.62)
2013.31
(110.52)
2519.53
(265.40)
0.002 5774.66
(606.82)
6912.54
(798.13)
5180.98
(822.29)
0.022
Household size, mean (SE) 3.04 (0.03) 2.86 (0.04) 3.35 (0.06) < 0.000 3.19 (0.09) 2.53 (0.11) 3.54 (0.11) < 0.000
Poor/low-insured household, n (%) 91 (5.7) 25 (2.5) 66 (10.9) < 0.000 41 (14.6) 13 (13.5) 28 (15.2) 0.707
Rural household head, n (%) 859 (53.8) 583 (58.6) 276 (45.8) < 0.000 181 (64.6) 71 (74.0) 110 (59.8) 0.019
Male household head, n (%) 1202 (75.2) 770 (77.4) 432 (71.6) 0.010 223 (79.6) 76 (79.2) 147 (79.9) 0.886
Minority household head, n (%) 171 (10.7) 14 (1.4) 157 (26.0) < 0.000 80 (28.6) 3 (3.1) 77 (41.8) < 0.000
Married household head, n (%) 1334 (83.5) 859 (86.3) 475 (78.8) < 0.000 222 (79.3) 76 (79.2) 146 (79.3) 0.972
Educational status of household head, n (%)     < 0.000     0.001
 Illiteracy 166 (10.4) 56 (5.6) 110 (18.2)   68 (24.3) 10 (10.4) 58 (31.5)  
 Primary school 448 (28.0) 305 (30.7) 143 (23.7)   99 (35.4) 43 (44.8) 56 (30.4)  
 Secondary school 516 (32.3) 334 (33.6) 182 (30.2)   71 (25.4) 29 (30.2) 42 (22.8)  
 High/technical school or above 468 (29.3) 300 (30.2) 168 (27.9)   42 (15.0) 14 (14.6) 28 (15.2)  
Employment status of household head, n (%)     < 0.000     0.001
 Employed 1027 (64.3) 673 (67.6) 354 (58.7)   134 (47.9) 38 (39.6) 96 (52.2)  
 Retired 305 (19.1) 192 (19.31) 113 (18.7)   61 (21.8) 22 (22.9) 39 (21.2)  
 Unemployed 266 (16.6) 130 (13.1) 136 (22.6)   85 (30.4) 36 (37.5) 49 (26.6)  
Proportion of members with health insurance in household (%),mean (SE) 97.04 (0.32) 96.95 (0.39) 97.20 (0.55) 0.164 97.73 (0.67) 98.75 (0.66) 97.20 (0.97) 0.502
Number of members over 60 years in household, mean (SE) 0.70 (0.02) 0.78 (0.03) 0.56 (0.03) < 0.000 0.86 (0.05) 1.14 (0.09) 0.72 (0.06) < 0.000
Number of members with chronic diseases in household in the last six months, mean (SE) 0.39 (0.02) 0.33 (0.02) 0.48 (0.03) < 0.000 0.74 (0.05) 0.74 (0.08) 0.74 (0.06) 0.963
Number of outpatients in household in the last two weeks of the survey, mean (SE) 0.18 (0.01) 0.17 (0.01) 0.19 (0.02) 0.486 0.39 (0.04) 0.45 (0.07) 0.35 (0.04) 0.225
Number of inpatients in household in the last one year of the survey, mean (SE) 0.24 (0.1) 0.17 (0.01) 0.34 (0.02) < 0.000 0.63 (0.04) 0.63 (0.07) 0.63 (0.05) 0.967
  1. CHE catastrophic health expenditure; SE standard error; interquartile range; US United States
  2. Household size: number of permanent residents in household; Poor/low-insured household: poor or low-insured household identified by the local government; Married: married status in the marriage law
  3. χ2 or Fisher’s exact test was used for categorical variables, and T-test or Manny-Whitney test was for continuous variables