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Table 2 Mean annual costs (in EUR) in 2011 for outpatient health services, by group and specialty

From: Differences in healthcare costs in youths with conduct disorders in rural vs. urban regions: an analysis of German health insurance data

  Conduct Disorder Group Control Group
Specialty Urban Rural P-value Effect size (d) Urban Rural P-value Effect size (d)
Child and adolescent psychiatrist/ psychotherapist 493.92 (±899.50) 271.80 (±523.67) < 0.0005 0.23 31.28 (±235.10) 20.56 (±155.65) 0.033 −0.05
Paediatrician 165.92 (±233.14) 95.64 (±135.60) < 0.005 0.24 83.85 (±114.64) 69.61 (±92,96) < 0.0005 −0.14
General practitioner 48.55 (±87.57) 57.83 (±79.86) < 0.0005 0.15 33.90 (±59.09) 43.71 (±65.74) < 0.0005 0.16